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microlensing degeneracy vâgeniye rizlenzeš Fr.: dégénérescence des paramètres de l'effet de microlentille Determining the three various parameters of a microlensing event (the lenssource relative parallax and proper motion, and the mass of the lens) from only one physical parameter (the event time scale). Currently the microlensing degeneracy affects the vast majority of events and makes any individual event impossible to interpret with certainty. → microlensing; → degeneracy. 
mineral kâni (#) Fr.: minéral A naturally occurring inorganic solid. The internal crystalline structure of a mineral is controlled by its elemental composition. From M.L. minerale "something mined," from neuter of mineralis "pertaining to mines," from minera "mine." Kâni "mineral," from kân "mine," from kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan "to dig," akaniya "it was dug;" Av. kan "to dig," uskən "to dig out" (→ ex for prefix us); cf. Skt. khan "to dig," khanati "he digs"). 
neutron degeneracy vâgeniye notron Fr.: dégénérescence des neutrons The state of degeneracy created when the density of matter is so high that neutrons cannot be packed any more closely together. This condition occurs in the core of stars above 1.44 solar masses (→ Chandrasekhar limit) where under the gravitational collapse electrons and protons are forced to combine into neutrons. Therefore, in a → neutron star all the lowest neutron energy levels are filled and the neutrons are forced into higher and higher energy levels, since according to Pauli Exclusion Principle no two neutrons (fermions) can occupy identical states. This creates an effective pressure which prevents further gravitational collapse. However, for masses greater than 3 solar masses, even neutron degeneracy cannot prevent further collapse and it continues toward the black hole state. → neutron; → degeneracy. 
New General Catalogue (NGC) kâtâloge harvine now Fr.: New General Catalogue A catalogue of 7,840 nonstellar objects compiled by J. L. E. Dreyer and published in 1888. A further 1,529 objects were listed in a supplement that appeared seven years later, called the → Index Catalogue (IC). The Second Index Catalogue of 1908 extended the supplementary list to 5,386 objects. 
Noachian era dowrâne Nuhiyâné Fr.: ère noachienne >Noachian era =

noise temperature damâye nufé Fr.: température de bruit A means for specifying the noise generated as unwanted → electromagnetic radiation in a receiver system or one of its components. It is usually measured in terms of the equivalent temperature in a → RayleighJeans spectrum. Noise temperature is used mainly in radio astronomy. → noise; → temperature. 
nonhierarchical multiple system râžmâne bastâyiye nâpâygâni Fr.: système multiple non hiérarchique A → multiple star system that lacks the characteristics of a → hierarchical multiple system. → non; → hierarchical; → multiple; → system. 
nucleosynthetic era dowrâne hastehandâyi Fr.: ère nucléosynthétique The era following the leptonic era, between 1 second and 1000 seconds after the Big Bang, when neutrons were abundant and helium and deuterium were synthesized. → nucleosynthetic; → era. 
numeral 1) šomârâl; 2) šomâreyi (#), adadi (#) Fr.: 1) numéral; 2) numéral, numérique 1) A symbol, group of symbols, or word used to express a number.
For any number there is an infinite number of numeral expressions.
For example, the number two can be written as 2, II, binary 10, 4/2, 18/8, etc. From L.L. numeralis "of, or belonging to number," → number + → al 
numeral system râžmâne adadi, é adadhâ Fr.: système de numération A set of → symbols and → rules for representing → numbers. Same as → number system. See also: → Greek numeral system, → Roman numeral system, → Indian numeral system. 
numerator šomârân (#) Fr.: numérateur The quantity x in a fraction x/y). The quantity y is the → denominator. L.L. numerator "a counter, numberer," from L. numera(re) "to number," → number + tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs and, less commonly, from nouns. Šomârân, agent noun of šomârdan, → number. 
operability âpâridanigi, âpârešpaziri Fr.: opérabilité The capability of being put into use, operation, or practice. 
operable âpâridani, âpârešpazir Fr.: opérable Capable of operating or of being operated. 
operate âpâridan Fr.: opérer To function or work; to make something function or work. From L. operari "to work, labor," L. opus "a work, labor, exertion," Av. *āpah, *apah "to do, operate," see below, Skt. ápas "work, action, religious act;" O.H.G. uoben "to start work, to practice, to honor;" Ger. üben "to exercise, practice;" Du. oefenen; O.E. æfnan "to perform, work, do," afol "power"); PIE base *op "to work, perform." Âpâridan, from âpâr, from Av. *āp(ah) "to do, operate," as above, + suffix ar (as in vadar "weapon," zafar "jaw," baēvar "thousand," and so on), shifted to âr, + idan suffix of infinitives. The Av. *āpah "to do, operate," is extant in Mod.Pers. xub "good;" Mid.Pers. hwp, xub "good;" from Av. huuāpah "doing good work, masterly," from huu, hv "good" → eu + āpah "work, deed," hauuapanha "creativity;" cf. Skt. svápas "doing good work, skillful;" PIE base *op, as above. 
operating system (OS) râžmâne âpâreš Fr.: système d'exploitation The program that, after being initially loaded into the → computer by a boot program, → manages all the other → programs in a computer. 
operation âpâreš Fr.: opération 1) General: An act or instance, process, or manner of functioning or operating. Verbal noun of → operate 
operational âpâreši Fr.: opérationnel Pertaining to a process or series of actions for achieving a result. Adj. of → operation. 
operational calculus afmârike âpâreši Fr.: calcul opérationnel A method of mathematical analysis which in many cases makes it possible to reduce the study of differential operators, pseudodifferential operators and certain types of integral operators, and the solution of equations containing them, to an examination of simpler algebraic problems. It is also known as operational analysis. → operational; → calculus. 
operationalism âpârešbâvari Fr.: opérationalisme In the philosophy of science, the view that → concepts are defined in terms of measuring operations which determine their applicability. Same as operationism. 
operator âpârgar Fr.: opérateur Math.: Something that acts on another function to produce another function. In linear algebra an "operator" is a linear operator. In calculus an "operator" may be a differential operator, to perform ordinary differentiation, or an integral operator, to perform ordinary integration. 
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