An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 28 Search : bound
bound
  ۱) بندیده؛ ۲) کران   
1) bandidé; 2) karân

Fr.: lié; lien   

1) (adj.) Tied, confined by bonds. → bound cluster, → bound charge, → bound system.
2) (n) a boundary; a limit.

1) p.p. of → bind. 2) → boundary.

bound charge
  بارِ بندیده   
bâr-e bandidé

Fr.: charge liée   

Any electric charge which is bound to an atom or molecule, in contrast to free charge, such as metallic conduction electrons, which is not. Also known as → polarization charge.

bound; → charge.

bound cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ بندیده   
xuše-ye bandidé

Fr.: amas lié   

A cluster of astronomical objects, such as stars or galaxies, held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. → bound system.

Bound, p.p. of → bind; → cluster.

Xušé, → cluster; bandidé p.p. of bandidan, → bind.

bound occurrence
  رخداد ِ بندیده   
roxdâd-e bandidé

Fr.: occurrence liée   

Any → occurrence of a → variable  x in an x-bound part of a → wff.

bound; → occurrence.

bound orbit
  مدار ِ بندیده   
madâr-e bandidé

Fr.: orbite liée   

The orbit described by an object around a central gravitational force in a system whose total energy is negative. An elliptical orbit.

Bound, p.p. of → bind; → orbit.

Madâr, → orbit; bandidé, p.p. of bandidan, → bind.

bound system
  راژمان ِ بندیده   
râžmân-e bandidé

Fr.: système lié   

A system composed of several material bodies the total energy of which (the sum of kinetic and potential energies) is negative, e.g. a → bound cluster.

Bound, p.p. of → bind; → system.

Aâžmân, → system; bandidé p.p. of bandidan, → bind.

bound-bound transition
  گذرش ِ بندیده-بندیده   
gozareš-e bandidé-bandidé

Fr.: transition liée-liée   

A transition between two energy levels of an electron bound to a nucleus. The electron remains tied to the nucleus before and after the transition. → bound-free transition; → free-free emission.

Bound, p.p. of → bind; → transition.

bound-free transition
  گذرش ِ بندیده-آزاد   
gozareš-e bandidé-âzâd

Fr.: transition liée-libre   

A transition in which a bound electron is liberated. → free-bound emission; → free-free emission.

Bound, p.p. of → bind; → free.

boundary
  کران   
karân (#)

Fr.: limite, bord   

1) General: Something that indicates a border or limit; the border or limit so indicated.
2) Thermodynamics: A conceptual closed surface useful in separating and distinguishing a system from its surroundings.
3) Math.: In topology, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S.
4) Electronics: An area of meeting of P-type and N-type → semiconductor materials where the → donor and → acceptor concentrations are equal.

From Fr., from O.Fr. bodne, from M.L. bodina, butina "boundary, boundary marker."

Karân, karâné, kenâr from Mid.Pers. karânag, Av. karana- "boundary."

boundary conditions
  بوتارها‌ی ِ کران، ~ کرانی   
butârhâ-ye karân, ~ karâni

Fr.: conditions à la limite   

1) Math: Restriction on the limits of applicability of an equation. In a differential equation, conditions that allow to fix the constant of integration and reach a unique solution. The number of boundary conditions necessary to determine a solution matches the order of the equation.
2) Physics: Conditions needed to determine the evolution of a system, given the physical laws.

boundary; → condition.

boundary effect
  اسکر ِ کران   
oskar-e karân

Fr.: effet de bords   

An effect that forbids or invalidate locally the use of an idealized model of a system in which one or several of its dimensions are supposed to be infinite.

boundary; → effect.

boundary layer
  لایه‌ی ِ کرانی   
lâye-ye karâni

Fr.: couche limite   

A layer of fluid that is formed wherever a fluid flows past a solid surface and the effects of → viscosity are important. The boundary level forms because as the fluid moves past the object, the molecules which are in direct contact with the surface stick to the surface. The molecules just above the surface are slowed down in their collisions with the molecules sticking to the surface. These molecules in turn slow down the flow just above them, but less effectively. This creates a thin layer of fluid near the surface in which the velocity changes from zero at the surface to the free stream value away from the surface. The boundary layer may be either → laminar or → turbulent in character, depending on the value of the → Reynolds number. The concept of boundary level was first put forward by Ludwig Prandlt (1875-1953) in 1904.

boundary; → layer.

bounded
  کرانمند، کراندار   
karânmand (#), karândâr (#)

Fr.: limité   

General: Having bounds or limits.
Math.: Of a function, having a range with an upper bound and a lower bound.

Adj. from → bound.

bounded function
  کریای ِ کرانمند، ~ کراندار   
karyâ-ye karânmand, ~ karândâr

Fr.: fonction bornée   

The function y = f(x) in a given range of the argument x if there exists a positive number M such that for all values of x in the range under consideration the inequality | f(x) | ≤ M will be fulfilled. → unbounded function.

bounded; → function.

density-bounded H II region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ H IIی ِ چگالی‌کرانمند   
nâhiye-ye H II-ye cagâli karânmand

Fr.: bornée par la densité   

An → H II region which lacks enough matter to absorb all → Lyman continuum photons of the → exciting star(s). In such an H II region a part of the ionizing photons escape into the → interstellar medium. See also → ionization-bounded H II region.

density; → bounded; → region.

free-bound emission
  گسیل ِ آزاد-بندیده   
gosil-e âzâd-bandidé

Fr.: émission libre-liée   

The radiation emitted when a → free electron is captured by an → ion. See also: → free-free emission; → bound-free transition.

free; → bound; → emission.

gravitationally bound
  گرانشانه بندیده   
gerânešâné bandidé

Fr.: gravitationnellement lié   

Objects held in orbit about each other by their → gravitational attraction. Such objects are part of a → bound system.

gravitational; → bound.

ionization-bounded H II region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ II H‌ی ِ یونش‌کران‌مند   
nâhiye-ye H II-e yoneš-karânmand

Fr.: région H II bornée par ionisation   

An H II region whose → exciting star(s) do not have enough → Lyman continuum photons to ionize the whole region. → density-bounded H II region.

ionization; → bounded; → H II region.

laminar boundary layer
  لایه‌ی ِ کرانی ِ ورقه‌ای   
lâye-ye karâni-ye varaqe-yi

Fr.: Couche limite laminaire   

In a fluid flow, layer next to a fixed boundary. The fluid velocity is zero at the boundary but the molecular viscous stress is large because the velocity gradient normal to the wall is large. → turbulent boundary layer.

laminar; → boundary; → layer.

no boundary hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ گیتی بی کران ِ آغازین   
engâre-ye giti bi karân-e âqâzin

Fr.: l'hypothèse de l'Univers sans limite initiale   

The proposal whereby the → Universe would not have begun with a → singularity. Instead, the → Big Bang would be an ordinary point of → space-time. The proposal, advanced by James Hartle and Stephen Hawking (1983) results from an attempt to combine aspects of → general relativity and → quantum mechanics. Based on an imaginary time assumption, it predicts a closed Universe that would start at a single point, that can be compared to the North Pole of the Earth on a two-dimensional space. Before the → Planck era there was space, but the real time began with the Big Bang event. → Hartle-Hawking initial state.

boundary; → hypothesis.

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