An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 554
-tion
   -ش، -یی   
-eš, -yi

Fr.: -tion   

A suffix used to form abstract nouns from verbs to express action, state, or associated meanings.

From L. -tionem, accusative of noun suffix -tio (genitive -tionis).

-eš, from Mid.Pers. -išn.

-tor
   -گر، -گار، -آر، -نده   
-gar (#), -gâr (#), -âr (#), -andé (#)

Fr.: -teur   

A suffix forming personal agent nouns mainly from verbs, as in dictator, genitor, orator.

From L. -tor (examples), cf. Gk. -tor (examples), Av. -tar (astar "thrower," dātar- "giver," varštar- "producer"), Skt. -tr (datr- "giver," dartr- "breaker")

Agent suffix -gar, variant -gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make;" krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"). Suffix -âr, as in parastâr, xaridâr, virâstâr. Agent suffix -andé, used with verbs.

-tron
   -ترون   
-tron (#)

Fr.: -tron   

A suffix used principally in the names of various devices and instruments (klystron; magnetron; cyclotron; synchrotron).

Perhaps a shortening of electron with accidental allusion to the Gk. instrumental suffix -tron, as in arotron "plough;" akin to O.E. -thor, suffix denoting an instrument; L. -trum; Skt. -tra.

-tropic
   -گرد   
-gard (#)

Fr.: -trope   

A suffix denoting "turned toward" that specified by the initial element; → barotropic, → isotropic, → polytropic.

From Gk. -tropos "a turn, way, manner," from tropein "to turn," from PIE base *trep- "to turn" (cf. L. trepit "he turns").

Gard "turning, changing," from gardidan "to turn, to change," Mid.Pers. vartitan, Av. varət- "to turn, revolve," Skt. vartati, L. vertere, O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE *werto, *wer-.

-tropy
   -گردی   
-gardi (#)

Fr.: -tropie   

A suffix denoting the state of turning in a specified way.

From Gk. -tropia, from tropos "turn," trope "a turning."

Suffix form -gardi, from gardidan, gaštan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

T association
  آهزش ِ T   
âhazeš-e T

Fr.: association T   

A → stellar association containing many → T Tauri stars. Examples include the Taurus-Auriga T association, the nearby → TW Hydrae association, and Vela T1 and T2.

T, letter of alphabet; → association.

T dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ T   
kutule-ye T

Fr.: naine T   

A type of → brown dwarf with an → effective temperature between about 1200 K and 500 K, i.e. colder than the preceding type → L dwarf. The spectra of T dwarfs are characterized by the presence of → methane (CH4) bands in the → near infrared. The presence of these bands, broad H2O features, and H2 collision-induced absorption radically alter the spectral energy distributions of T dwarfs compared to a black body at the same temperature. Hence near-infrared colors become increasingly blue (J - K ~ 0) as compared to L dwarfs. The first T dwarf, called → Gl 229B, was discovered by Nakajima et al. (1995, Nature 378, 463). The spectral classification scheme (subtypes T0 to T9) currently used was defined by Burgasser et al. (2002, ApJ 564, 421).

For the reasoning behind the choice of the letter T, see Kirkpatrick et al. 1993, ApJ 406, 701; → dwarf.

T Tauri
   T-گاو   
T Gâv

Fr.: T Tauri   

The most famous young stellar object, the prototype of → T Tauri stars which is located in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region at a distance of about 140 pc. T Tauri is about 2.4 solar masses and about 7 million years old. Complex structures of shock heated gas indicative of outflows surround the star, both on sub-arcsecond and larger scales. The → accretion rate is estimated to be (3-6) x 10-8 solar masses per year. T Tauri has a companion (about 0.7 arcseconds apart) which is invisible in the optical and has been observed to be strongly variable in infrared. It is an intermediate mass young star (2.5 solar masses) surrounded by a → circumstellar disk. This star is itself a → close binary, the component being a low mass star (0.6 solar masses) also surrounded by circumstellar material.

T, letter of alphabet; Tauri genitive of → Taurus.

T Tauri star
  ستاره‌ی ِ T-گاو   
setâre-ye T-Gâv

Fr.: étoile T Tauri   

A member of a class of young stellar objects of roughly 1 solar mass showing strong → infrared excess emission attributed to → circumstellar disks and found within or close to molecular clouds. T Tauri stars are → protostars in the final stages of formation to become a stable → main sequence star. The nuclear reactions in their core have not yet stabilised and the stars are known for the variability of their brightness. See also → classical T Tauri star, → weak-line T Tauri star.

T Tauri; → star.

T-symmetry
  همامونی ِ زمانی   
hamâmuni-ye zamâni

Fr.: symétrie T   

The symmetry of physical laws under a time reversal transformation.

T for → time; → symmetry.

table
  جدول   
jadval (#)

Fr.: table, tableau   

1) An arrangement of words, numbers, or signs, or combinations of them, in parallel columns, to exhibit a set of facts or relations in a definite, compact, and comprehensive form.
2) In particular, → zij

M.E.; O.E. tabule; O.Fr. table "board, plank, writing table" (cf. O.H.G. zabel, Ger. Tafel), both from L. tabula "a board, plank, table," originally "small flat slab or piece" usually for inscriptions or for games.

Jadval, loan from Ar. jadwal.

tablet
  پرنیک   
parnik

Fr.: tablette   

A flat slab or surface, especially one bearing or intended to bear an inscription, carving, or the like (Dictionary.com).

M.E. tablette, from M.Fr. tablete, diminutive from → table.

Parnik, literally "laminar, resembling a leaf, leaf-like," variant parnix [Dehxodâ] "a stone or marble slab, a plane stone," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *parnika-, from *parn-, *par- "feather; leaf, thin layer;" cf. Av. parəna- "feather," Skt. parna- "feather; leaf (regarded as the plumage of a tree)," Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather; leaf;" PIE *pornos-, *pernom- "feather" (E. fern and Ger. Farn belong to this family). See also → slate.

tachocline
  تنداشیب   
tondâšib

Fr.: tachocline   

A thin → transition  → layer inside → Sun, between the → differentially rotating  → convection zone and the uniformly rotating radiative interior. Discovered through → helioseismology, it has raised considerable interest, but its thinness remains still to be explained. Due to its strong → shear, it is believed to play a crucial role in the generation of the → solar magnetic field.

Tachocline, from tacho- a combining form meaning "speed," → tachyon + → -cline "slope." The term was first coined by Edward A. Spiegel and Jean-Paul Zahn (1992, A&A 265, 106), by analogy to the oceanic → thermocline.

Tondâšib, from tondâ, → velocity, + šib, → -cline.

tachyon
  تاکیون   
tâkion (#)

Fr.: tachyon   

A hypothetical subatomic particle that travels faster than the speed of light.

From tachy- a combining form meaning "swift," from Gk. tachys "swift" + → -on.

tadpole orbit
  مدار ِ وزغچه‌ای   
madâr-e vazaqce-yi

Fr.: orbite en forme de têtard   

A shorter → horseshoe orbit confined to the → Lagrangian points L4 or L5.

From M.E. taddepol, from tadde "toad" + polle "head," from M.L.G. or M.Du. pol "head, top;" → orbit.

Vazaqcé, literally "baby frog," from vazaq "frog," variants Tabari, Aftari vak, Tabari vag, (prefixed) qurbâqé, Lori, Laki qorvâ, korvâx, Kurd. baq, Zâzâ baqa; Mid.Pers. vazak, vak; Av. vazaγa- "frog" + -cé diminutive suffix (variant -ižé), as in daricé, dastârcé, qolâmcé, divcé, juycé (nâyžé, sorxežé, muyžé), Mid.Pers -cak (-ižak); madâr, → orbit.

tail
  دم، دنباله   
dom (#), donbâlé (#)

Fr.: queue   

1) The part that sticks out at the back of an animal's body, and that it can move.
2) Anything resembling such an appendage in form or position.
3) → cometary tail.

M.E.; O.E. tægl, from P.Gmc. *tagla- (cf. O.H.G. zagal, Ger. Zagel "tail," O.N. tagl "horse's tail").

Dom, variant domb, "tail;" Mid.Pers. dumb "tail;" Av. duma- "tail"; donbâlé, from domb + -âlé, -âl resemblance suffix, → -al.

take
  گرفتن   
gereftan (#)

Fr.: prendre   

To get into one's hold or possession by voluntary action; to hold, grasp, or grip (Dictionary.com).

M.E. taken "to take, strike, grasp," O.E. tacan "to grasp, touch," probably from Old Norse taka "to take, grasp;" cf. M.Du. taken "to grasp;," Gothic tekan "to touch."

Gereftan "to take, seize, hold;" Mid.Pers. griftan, gir- "to take, hold, restrain;" O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize;" cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha- "seizing, holding, perceiving;" M.L.G. grabben "to grab;" E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize;" see also → assumption, → concept.

talc
  تلک   
talk (#)

Fr.: talc   

A white, grey, or pale green soft → mineral with a greasy feel consisting of → hydrated  → magnesium  → silicate, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.

From M.Fr. talc, from M.L. talcus, talcum, from Ar. talq, from Pers. talk "talc."

tale
  متل   
matal (#)

Fr.: conte, histoire   

A narrative that relates the details of some real or imaginary event, incident, or case; story (Dictionary.com).

From M.E., from O.E. talu "series, list, narrative, story;" cognate with Du. taal "speech, language," Ger. Zahl "number," O.Norse tala "number, speech,"

Matal "tale, history," of unknown origin.

Tambora volcano
  آتشفشان ِ تامبورا   
âtašfešân-e Tambora

Fr.: volcan Tambora   

The largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, which mainly occurred on April 10, 1815 in the Indonesian Sumbawa Island. An estimated 150 cubic kilometers of igneous material was ejected, whereby the mountain lost ~ 1400 m in height during the blast (current height ~ 2900 m). The eruption created a 6 km-wide, 1250 m-deep → caldera. The ash put into the atmosphere produced high-latitude clouds which intercepted incoming sunlight. The resulting drop in → insolation caused a dramatic change in climate and weather patterns in the Northern Hemisphere during the following year. The year 1816 is known as the "year without a summer" because there was no warm season over much of the Northern Hemisphere.

Tambora, proper noun; → volcano

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