1) A group of things that are similar in some way.
2a) Philo.: In Aristotelian logic, any of the ten different ways
(substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time,
position, possession, doing, and undergoing) in which the subject of a proposition
may relate to its predicate. For example, the proposition "All men are mortal"
belongs to the Category of Quality since it tells us what "all men" are like,
2b) Philo.: In Kant's system, any of the twelve
(four groups of three each) pure concepts of the understanding
that constitute necessary conditions of experience and correspond with the classes
of judgements treated in formal logic. According to Kant, the categories are results
of the mind's activity, and are distinguished from sensation. The categories have, furthermore,
like space and time relations, a peculiar universality. They are, in other words,
3) Math.: An entity consisting of a class of objects and a class of
→ morphisms between those objects that satisfy certain
M.Fr. catégorie, from L.L. categoria, from Gk. kategoria, from
kategorein "to speak against; to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata
"down, against, back," → cata-,
+ agorein "to speak before public assembly,"
from agora "marketplace, public square" (from ageirein "to gather");
cognate with L. grex, gregis "herd, troop, crowd;" Skt. gramah- "heap, crowd,
community;" Old Icelandic kremja "to squeeze;" O.E.
crammian "to cram;" Latvian gùrste "bundle of
flask;" Polish garnac "to gather;" Russ. gorst' "cupped hand;"
cf. Pers. gor-, gal-, etc., as below; PIE base *ger- "to gather."
Katâgor, from katâ-, → cata-,
+ gor- "to gather," ultimately from PIE *ger-, as above. We put forward that the
following Iranian words derive from the above PIE base *ger- "to gather":
goruh "crowd, troop, band;"
gallé (conversion of r to l) "herd, flock;"
jarra (Laki) "group; stick bundle;"
gerd in gerd âvardan "to collect, bring together" probably not related to gerd
xalam (Âštiyâni) "herd, flock;"
xelima (Qâyeni) "herd;"
korand, korang "a ring made by hunters or troops;"
korka (Laki) "bundle of harvested ears of wheat;"
gola, golé "bundle of hair; bunch"
gola-gâh "place of gathering;"
gurâb "market place in a village, agora;"
There are dozens of villages all-over Iran named Gorâb, Gurâb,
Gela, Gola, Gala and their
combinations with other words (e.g. Galadeh, Galazan, Galavand) that
probably refer to places of gathering.
One can also mention village names such as Agora, Gore, Gere(kalâ), Garaku, Oger,
and so on in Mâzandarân;
Khotanese (prefixed ham-) gris "to assemble."