Fr.: classification de Boeshaar-Keenan
A system for the classification of → S-type stars. The system involves the designations of a C/O index and a temperature type. Moreover, when possible, it uses intensity estimates for → ZrO bands, the → TiO bands, the → Na I D-lines, the YO bands, and the Li I 6708 line.
Philip C. Keenan & Patricia C. Boeshaar, 1980, ApJS, 43, 379; → classification.
The systematic grouping of astronomical objects into categories on the basis of physical, morphological, or evolutionary characteristics.
Classification, from O.Fr., from classifier, from → class + -fier, from L. -ficare, root of facere "to make, do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do" (cf. Skt. dadhati "puts, places;" Av. dadaiti "he puts," O.Pers. ada "he made," Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place."
Radebandi, from radé, → class, + bandi, verbal noun of bastan "to bind, shut; to get, acquire, incur," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" Ger. binden, E. bind, → band; PIE base *bhendh- "to bind."
Fr.: classification Fanaroff-Riley
A classification scheme for distinguishing a → radio galaxy from an → active galaxy based on their → radio frequency and → luminosity and their kpc-scale appearance. Analyzing a sample of 57 radio galaxies from the → 3CR catalogue, which were clearly resolved at 1.4 GHz or 5 GHz, Fanaroff & Riley (1974) discovered that the relative positions of regions of high and low → surface brightness in the → lobes of extragalactic → radio sources are correlated with their radio luminosity. They divided the sample into two classes using the ratio RFR of the distance between the regions of highest surface brightness on opposite sides of the central galaxy or quasar, to the total extent of the source up to the lowest brightness contour in the map. → Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR-I) , → Fanaroff-Riley Class II (FR-II). The boundary between the two classes is not very sharp, and there is some overlap in the luminosities of sources classified as FR-I or FR-II on the basis of their structures. The physical cause of the FR-I/II dichotomy probably lies in the type of flow in the → radio jets.
Bernard L. Fanaroff and Julia M. Riley, 1974, MNRAS 167, 31P; → classification.
Fr.: classification de Goldschmidt
A → geochemical classification scheme in which → chemical elements on the → periodic table are divided into groups based on their → affinity to form various types of compounds: → lithophile, → chalcophile, → siderophile, and → atmophile. The classification takes into account the positions of the elements in the periodic table, the types of electronic structures of atoms and ions, the specifics of the appearance of an affinity for a particular → anion, and the position of a particular element on the → atomic volume curve.
Developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947); → classification.
radebandi-ye Hârvârd (#)
Fr.: classification de Harvard
A classification of stellar spectra published in the Henry Draper catalogue, which was prepared in the early twentieth century by E. C. Pickering and Miss Annie Canon. It is based on the characteristic lines and bands of the chemical elements. The most important classes in order of decreasing temperatures are as follows: O, B, A, F, G, K, M.
Harvard, named for John Harvard (1607-1638), the English colonist, principal benefactor of Harvard College, now Harvard University. → classification
radebandi-ye Hubble (#)
Fr.: classification de Hubble
The classification of galaxies according to their visual appearance into four basic types suggested by E. Hubble: → ellipticals (E), → spirals (S), → barred spirals (SB), and → irregulars (Ir). Later on a separate class of → lenticulars (S0) was appended as an intermediate type between ellipticals and spirals. The sequence starts with round elliptical galaxies (E0). Flatter galaxies are arranged following a number which is calculated from the ratio (a - b)/a, where a and b are the major and minor axes as measured on the sky. Ellipticals are divided into eight categories (E0, E1, ..., E7). Beyond E7 a clear disk is apparent in the lenticular (S0) galaxies. The sequence then splits into two parallel branches of disk galaxies showing spiral structure: ordinary spirals, S, and barred spirals, SB. The spiral and barred types are subdivided into Sa, Sb, Sc, and SBa, SBb, SBc, respectively. Along the sequence from Sa to Sc, the central bulge becomes smaller, while the spiral arms become more and more paramount. The original, erroneous idea that such arrangement of the galaxies might represent an evolutionary sequence led to the ellipticals being referred to as early-type galaxies, and the spirals and Irr I irregulars as late-type galaxies. See also → dwarf galaxy, → dwarf elliptical galaxy, → dwarf spheroidal galaxy.
Fr.: classification de Hubble-Sandage
Same as the → Hubble classification.
radebandi-ye Morgan-Keenan (#)
Fr.: classification de Morgan-Keenan
A system of → spectral classification introduced in 1943 by William W. Morgan (1906-1994), Philip C. Keenan (1908-2000), and Edith M. Kellman (1911-2007) at Yerkes Observatory. Also known as the MK (or MKK) classification or the → Yerkes system.
Named after the two main astronomers, as above; → classification.
radebandi-ye rixtšenâxti (#)
Fr.: classification morphologique
A classification scheme of galaxies based on their apparent shape. → Hubble classification.
Fr.: classification de Secchi
A pioneering work in → spectral classification conducted in the 1860s. Secchi divided stars into four main groups based on the visual observation of spectra. Class I: The white and bluish stars with a continuous spectrum crossed by hydrogen bands, the metallic bands being absent or weak. Examples, → Sirius, → Vega. Class II: Yellow stars, with spectra in which the hydrogen bands were less prominent and the metallic lines more strong. Examples, Sun, → Capella. Class III: Red or orange stars, showing bands or flutings. Examples, → Antares, → Betelgeuse. Class IV: Red stars, showing bands similar to Class III, but with the sharp edge of the flutings toward the other end of the spectrum. Secchi's scheme was superseded by the photographic → Harvard classification system.
Pietro Angelo Secchi (1818-1878), Italian astronomer and Jesuit priest; → classification.
Fr.: classification SMASS
An asteroid taxonomy built on the → Tholen classification but based on the presence or absence of → absorption features in the visible part of the spectrum. In many cases the two classifications are the same, but the Tholen C and S classes are subdivided in the SMASS classification.
radebandi-ye binâbi (#)
Fr.: classification spectrale
A system that assigns a → spectral type to a star according to characteristics of its spectrum. The earliest attempt to divide stars on the basis of their spectra was the → Secchi classification in the 1860s. This scheme paved the way for the → Harvard classification that led to the current → Morgan-Keenan classification of spectral types. In the Harvard system stars were originally thought to follow an evolutionary sequence from the "early" O and B types to the "late" K and M types. Although this is now known to be wrong, the terms → early-type star and → late-type star are still in use. In the Morgan-Keenan system stars are classified as type O, B, A, F, G, K, or M in order of decreasing → effective temperature, and each type further subdivided into subclasses from 0 (hottest, except for → O-type stars) to 9 (coolest). They are also accompanied by a → luminosity class. In the late 1990s, spectral types L and T were added to the sequence to accommodate the coolest stars and → brown dwarfs (with class Y reserved for the coolest brown dwarfs of all, as yet unobserved).
Fr.: classification de Tholen
A fundamental system for the classification of → asteroids based on → albedo and → spectral characteristics. The Tholen scheme includes 14 types with the majority of asteroids falling into one of three broad categories, and several smaller types. → C-type asteroid, → M-type asteroid, → S-type asteroid.
David J. Tholen (1984) Ph.D. thesis, University of Arizona; → classification.