An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 7 Search : conversion

Fr.: conversion   

The act or process of converting; state of being converted. → convert.

Verbal noun of → convert.

Hâgard, from hâ- prefix denoting "reversal; to," sometimes creating nuance [Dehxodâ], + gard present stem of gardidan, gaštan "to change; to turn;" Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend."

conversion factor
  کروند ِ هاگرد   
karvand-e hâgard

Fr.: facteur de conversion   

1) A numerical factor that, by multiplication or division, translates one unit or value into another.
2) In → molecular cloud studies, a factor used to convert the → carbon monoxide (CO) line intensity to → molecular hydrogen (H2) → column density; usually denoted XCO = I(CO) / N(H2). This useful factor relates the observed CO intensity to the cloud mass. A general method to derive XCO is to compare the → virial mass and the 12CO (J = 1-0) luminosity of a cloud. The basic assumptions are that the CO and H2 clouds are co-extensive, and molecular clouds obey the → virial theorem. However, if the molecular cloud is subject to ultraviolet radiation, selective → photodissociation may take place, which will change the situation. Moreover, molecular clouds may not be in → virial equilibrium. To be in virial equilibrium molecular clouds must have enough mass, greater than about 105 solar masses. The way → metallicity affects XCO is a matter of debate, and there is no clear correlation between XCO and metallicity. Although lower metallicity brings about higher ultraviolet fields than in the solar vicinity, other factors appear to be as important as metallicity for the determination of XCO. In the case of the → Magellanic Clouds, XCO(SMC) = 14 ± 3 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1, which is larger than XCO (LMC) = 7 ± 2 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1. An independent method to derive XCO is to make use of the gamma ray emission from a cloud. The flow of → cosmic ray protons interacts with interstellar low-energy hydrogen nuclei in clouds creating neutral → pions. These pions quickly decay into two gamma rays. It is therefore possible to estimate the number of hydrogen nuclei and hence the cloud mass from the gamma ray counts. Such a gamma-ray based conversion factor is estimated to be 2.0 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 for Galactic clouds, in good agreement with the result obtained from the virial method. However, the gamma ray flux is not well known in general, so this method is uncertain as well. See, e.g., Fukui & Kawamura, 2010 (ARAA 48, 547).

conversion; → factor.

frequency to wavelength conversion
  هاگرد ِ بسامد به موج-طول   
hâgard-e basâmad bé mowj-tul

Fr.: conversion fréquence / longueur d'onde   

Deriving the → wavelength of an undulatory phenomenon from its → frequency, and vice versa.
1) For → electromagnetic waves: λ = c / f, where λ is the wavelength, c is the → speed of light in → meters per second and f the frequency in → hertz. It can be written as: λ (m) = 2.998 × 108 / f (Hz).
2) For → sound waves: λ = C / f, where C is the → sound speed. For air at temperature 0°C, λ (m) = 332 / f (Hz).

frequency; → wavelength; → conversion.

hertz to meter conversion
  هاگرد ِ هرتز به متر   
hâgard-e hertz bé metr

Fr.: conversion hertz / mètre   

frequency to wavelength conversion.

hertz; → meter; → conversion.

internal conversion
  هاگرد ِ درونی   
hâgard-e daruni

Fr.: conversion interne   

A → radiationless relaxation process in which a molecule in some excited → electronic state converts to a state of the same → multiplicity but of lower electronic energy and in which the lost electronic energy is converted initially into vibrational energy.

internal; → conversion.

number system conversion
  هاگرد ِ راژمان ِ عددی   
hâgard-e râžmân-e adadi

Fr.: conversion de système de numération   

The conversion of a → number system with a given → base to another system with a different base; such as the conversion of a → decimal number (base 10) to a → binary number system (base 2). In order to convert a number into its representation in a different number base, we have to express the number in terms of powers of the other base. For example, to convert the decimal number 100 to base 3, we must figure out how to express 100 as the sum of powers of 3. We proceed as follows:
1: Divide the decimal number to be converted (100) by the value of the new base (3).
2: Get the remainder from Step 1 (that is 1) as the rightmost digit (least significant digit) of new base number.
3: Divide the quotient of the previous divide (33) by the new base.
4: Record the remainder from Step 3 (0) as the next digit (to the left) of the new base number.
Repeat Steps 3 and 4, getting remainders from right to left, until the quotient becomes zero in Step 3 (2 and 0).
The last remainder thus obtained (1) will be the most significant digit of the new base number.
Therefore, 10010 = 102013.
Conversely, to convert from another base to decimal we must:
1: Determine the column (positional) value of each digit.
2: Multiply the obtained column values (in Step 1) by the digits in the corresponding columns.
3: Sum the products calculated in Step 2. The total is the equivalent value in decimal.
For example, the binary number 1100100 is determined by computing the place value of each of the digits of the number:
(1 × 26) + (1 × 25) + (0 × 24) + (0 × 23) + (1 × 22) + (0 × 21) + (0 × 20) = 64 + 32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 = 100.

number; → system; → conversion.

uranium conversion
  هاگرد ِ اورانیوم   
hâgard-e urâniom

Fr.: convesrion de l'uranium   

A chemical process converting the → yellowcake to → uranium hexafluoride. The uranium hexafluoride is heated to become a gas and loaded into cylinders. When it cools, it condenses into a solid.

uranium; → conversion.