# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 10 Search : digit
 accurate to n significant digits   رشمند با n رقم ِ نشانار   rašmand bâ n raqam-e nešânârFr.: écrit avec n chiffres significatifs   An expression specifying the number of meaningful digits used to express the value of a measured quantity. Same as accurate to n significant figures. For example, e = 2.71828 ... = 2.718 is rounded to four significant digits, and 2.72 to three significant digits. → accurate to n decimal places.→ accurate; → significant; → digit. analog-to-digital converter   هاگردگر ِ آناگویه-رقمی   hâgardgar-e ânâguyé-raqamiFr.: convertisseur analogique-numérique   In electronics, a device that converts the analog signal to → analog-to-digital units or counts.→ analogue; → digital; → converter. analog-to-digital unit (ADU)   یکای ِ آناگویه-رقمی   yekâ-ye ânâguyé-raqamiFr.: unité analogue-numérique   A number that represents a → charge-coupled device (CCD)'s output and is proportional to the → electron charge created by the → photons, plus the constant → bias offset. The relationship between the ADUs generated and the number of electrons acquired on the CCD is defined by the → CCD gain. Intensities given in ADUs provide a convenient method for comparing images and data generated by different cameras. Also referred to as → count and digital number. In most cases, the analog signal is digitalized by an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and fed into a computer where further manipulation and analysis are done on what the detector originally produced from the star's photons (Howell, S.B., Handbook of CCD Astronomy, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000).→ analogue; → digital; → unit. binary digit (bit)   رقم ِ درین، ~ دودو‌یی، بیت   raqam-e dorin, ~ dodoi, bitFr.: chiffre binaire   Either of the digits 0 or 1, used in the → binary number system.→ binary, → digit. digit   رقم   raqam (#)Fr.: chiffre   A symbol, numeral, or graphic character that represents an integer.From L. digitus "finger, toe."Raqam, from Ar. digital   رقمی   raqami (#)Fr.: numérique   1) Of or pertaining to a digit. 2) Representing data as a series of numerical values. Often opposed to → analogue.→ digit + → -al. digital computer   رایانگر ِ رقمی   râyângar-e raqami (#)Fr.: ordinateur numérique   A computer that accepts and operates with → discrete data in the form of combinations of digits, letters, or other characters. In modern terminology, generally called computer.→ digital + → computer. digitize   رقمیدن   raqamidan (#)Fr.: numériser   To convert an → analogue signal to a → digital signal that represents the same information as the analogue signal.→ digit + → -ize. significant digit   رقم ِ نشانار   raqam-e nešânârFr.: chiffre significatif   The number of digits used to express a measured or calculated quantity. Rules for deciding the number of significant digits: The leftmost digit which is not a zero is the most significant digit. If the number does not have a decimal point, the rightmost digit which is not a zero is the least significant digit. If the number does have a decimal point, the rightmost significant digit is the least significant digit, even if it's a zero. Every digit between the least and most significant digits should be counted as a significant digit.→ significant; → digit. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)   بردید ِ عددی ِ آسمان ِ Sloan   bardid-e adadi-ye âsmân-e SloanFr.: relevé numérique du ciel Sloan   A major → redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide angle telescope with different modes in → imaging and → spectroscopy. The telescope, a modified → Ritchey-Chretien→ altitude-azimuth type is located at Apache Point Observatory, south east New Mexico, United States. A large consortium of universities and institutions all over the world participate in the project. The telescope started its observations in 2000, taking spectra and images of about 35% of the night sky, with 3 million spectra and 500 million images coming together to form the most comprehensive astrophysical catalog in the world. This catalog contains millions of galaxies up to z = 1, bright → quasars up to z = 6, with images in five major filter bands (u, g, r, i and z). SDSS was divided into multiple surveys/projects: SDSS I (2000-2005); SDSS II (2005-2008), including the Sloan Supernova Survey; SDSS III (2008-2014), including the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS); SDSS IV (2014-2020), including the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA).Named after the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which contributed significant funding; → digital; → sky; → survey.