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affine transformation tarâdise karvan Fr.: transformation affine Any → transformation preserving → collinearity. → affine; → transformation. 
Aristotelian form diseye Arastuyi Fr.: forme aristotelienne Any of the four main → proposition
forms treated in Aristotle's → syllogism: Greek philosopher Aristotle (384322 BC); → form. 
Balmer formula disule Bâlmer Fr.: formule de Balmer A special solution of the mathematical formula which represents
the wavelengths of the various spectral series of hydrogen in which the
lower energy level is n = 
Bekenstein formula disule Bekenstein Fr.: formule de Bekenstein The mathematical expression giving the → entropy, S, of a → black hole as a function of the area of its → event horizon, A: S = (kc^{3}A)/(4Għ), where k is → Boltzmann's constant, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, and G the → gravitational constant. It can also be expressed by S = (kA)/(4l_{P}^{2}), where l_{P} is the → Planck length. The existence of this entropy led to the prediction of the → Hawking radiation, because an entropy is associated with a temperature and a temperature to a → thermal radiation. The entropy of a black hole increases continuously because the fall of material into it increases its area. For Jacob D. Bekenstein (1947), an Israeli theoretical physicist, who contributed to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics; → formula. 
biased galaxy formation diseše varakdâre kahkašânhâ Fr.: formation biaisée de galaxies The theory that bright galaxies form preferentially from anomalously overdense perturbations in the → early Universe. 
bimodal star formation diseše domode setâregân Fr.: formation bimodale d'étoile A concept of → star formation in which → highmass stars and → lowmass stars form in different physical conditions involving different → molecular clouds. Following the pioneering suggestion of Herbig (1962), successive investigations have generally supported the idea that star formation proceeds bimodally with respect to stellar mass. The star formation rate appears to differ both spatially and temporally for low mass and → massive stars. This is of considerable importance for galactic evolution, since the lowmass stars lock up mass and are longlived, low luminosity survivors to the present epoch, whereas massive stars are shortlived, recycle and enrich interstellar gas, and leave dark remnants while producing a high luminosity per unit of mass (Silk, J., 1988, in Galactic and Extragalactic Star Formation, p. 503, eds. R. E. Pudritz and M. Fich). 
bioinformatics zistazdâyik Fr.: bioinformatique The retrieval and analysis of biochemical and biological data using mathematics and computer science, as in the study of genomes (Dictionary.com). → bio; → informatics. 
Boltzmann's entropy formula disule dargâšte Boltzmann Fr.: formule d'entropie de Boltzmann In → statistical thermodynamics, a probability equation relating the → entropy S of an → ideal gas to the quantity Ω, which is the number of → microstates corresponding to a given → macrostate: S = k. ln Ω. Same as → Boltzmann's relation. → Boltzmann's constant; → entropy; → formula. 
bottomup structure formation diseše sâxtâr az pâyin bé
bâlâ Fr.: formation des structures du bas vers le haut A → structure formation scenario in which small galaxies form first, and larger structures are then formed in due course. Contrary to → topdown structure formation. 
burst of star formation belke diseše setâregân Fr.: flambée de formation d'étoiles An intense → star formation activity in a region of → interstellar medium or, more globally, in a → galaxy. It is characterized by a → star formation rate which is much higher than the corresponding average. Same as → starburst. 
canonical form diseye hanjârvâr Fr.: forme canonique The simplest expression of an equation, statement, or rule.

cluster formation efficiency (CFE) kârâyièye diseše xuše Fr.: efficacité de formation d'amas The fraction of → star formation which happens in → bound clusters. It is defined as the ratio between the → cluster formation rate and → star formation rate (Bastian, 2008, MNRAS 390, 759, arxiv/0807.4687). → cluster; → formation; → efficiency. 
cluster formation rate (CFR) nerxe diseše xuše Fr.: taux de formation d'amas A parameter used in star formation models representing the ratio of the total mass in → star clusters to the corresponding age range (Bastian, 2008, MNRAS 390, 759, arxiv/0807.4687). 
CO formation diseše CO Fr.: formation de CO The chemical reaction that gives rise to → carbon monoxide in the → interstellar medium. According to models, several processes may lead to CO formation. For example, HCO^{+} + e → CO + H. The molecule HCO^{+} is itself produced through several paths, for example: H_{3}^{+} + C → CH_{2}^{+} + H, CH_{2}^{+} + H_{2} → CH_{3}^{+} + H, CH_{3}^{+} + O → HCO^{+} + H. Alternatively: C^{+} + H_{2}O → HCO^{+} + H. Another possibility: C^{+} + OH → CO^{+} + H, CO^{+} + H_{2}→ HCO^{+} + H. → carbon monoxide; → formation. 
collective star formation diseše gerdâmdiye setâregân Fr.: formation collective d'étolies Formation of stars, especially → massive stars, in group as opposed to individual formation. → collective; → star; → formation. 
color transformation tarâdise rang Fr.: transformation de couleur Empirical mathematical transformation applied to the observed magnitudes in order to convert them into a standard system, or into a different system. → color; → transformation. 
compound angle formula disule zaviyeye hamnât Fr.: formule d'angle composé One of eight equations that give the → trigonometric functions
of → compound angles. 
conformal hamdis Fr.: conforme Math.: Of, pertaining to, or specifying a mapping of a surface upon another surface so that all angles between intersecting curves remain unchanged. 
conformal compactification hampakâneše hamdi Fr.: compactification conforme A mapping of an infinite → spacetime onto a finite one that may make the far away parts of the former accessible to study. The technique invented by Penrose defines an equivalence class of → metrics, g_{ab} being equivalent to ĝ_{ab} = Ω^{2}g_{ab}, where Ω is a positive scalar function of the spacetime that modifies the distance scale making the asymptotics of the physical metric accessible to study. → conformal; → compactification. 
conformal mapping hamtâyeše hamdis Fr.: application conforme A continuous mapping u = f(x) of a domain D in an ndimensional Euclidean space (n≥ 2) into the ndimensional Euclidean space is called conformal at a point x_{0}∈ D if it has the properties of constancy of dilation and preservation of angles at this point. 
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