An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 18 Search : in-
Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram
  نمودار ِ بالدوین-فیلیپس-ترلویچ   
nemudâr-e Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich

Fr.: diagram de Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich   

A set of nebular → emission line diagrams used to distinguish the ionization mechanism of → nebular gas. The most famous version consists of [N II]λ6584/Hα versus [OIII] λ5007/Hβ. The next two more commonly used BPT diagnostics are [S II] λλ6717,6731/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ and [O I] λ6300/Hα versus [O III]λ5007/Hβ. These diagrams use strong, optical lines of close proximity in the ratios to limit → reddening and → spectrophotometric effects. They are able to clearly distinguish different classes of → ionization, for example → LINERs from normal → H II regions and → active galactic nuclei.

Baldwin, J. A., Phillips, M. M., Terlevich, R., 1981 PASP 93, 5; → diagram.

Becklin-Neugebauer object
  بر‌آخت ِ بکلین-نیوجباؤر   
barâxt-e Becklin-Neugebauer

Fr.: objet de Becklin-Neugebauer   

A compact infrared source in the Orion molecular cloud (OMC-1). It is thought to be a very dusty compact H II region surrounding a young B0 or B1 star.

After Eric Becklin (1940-), and Gerry Neugebauer (1932-) who discovered the object in 1967; → object.

Einstein-de Sitter effect
  اسکر ِ اینشتین-دو سیتر   
oskar-e Einstein-de Sitter

Fr.: effet Einstein-de Sitter   

Same as → geodetic precession.

Einstein-de Sitter Universe; → effect.

Einstein-de Sitter Universe
  گیتی ِ اینشتین-دو سیتر   
giti-ye Einstein-de Sitter

Fr.: Univers Einstein-de Sitter   

The → Friedmann-Lemaitre model of → expanding Universe that only contains matter and in which space is → EuclideanM > 0, ΩR = 0, ΩΛ = 0, k = 0). The Universe will expand at a decreasing rate for ever.

Einstein; de Sitter, after the Dutch mathematician and physicist Willem de Sitter (1872-1934) who worked out the model in 1917; → Universe.

Einstein-Hilbert action
  ژیرش ِ اینشتین-هیلبرت   
žireš-e Einstein-Hilbert

Fr.: action de Einstein-Hilbert   

In → general relativity, the → action that yields → Einstein's field equations. It is expressed by:
SEH = (1/2κ)∫d4x (-g)1/2R + Sm,
where κ ≡ 8πG and Sm is the matter part of the action.

Einstein; → Hilbert space; → action.

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox
  پارادخش ِ اینشتین-پودولسکی-روزن   
pârâdaxš-e Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen

Fr.: paradoxe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen   

EPR paradox.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen: "Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?" Phys. Rev. 41, 777 (15 May 1935); → paradox.

Einstein-Rosen bridge
  پل ِ اینشتین-روزن   
pol-e Einstein-Rosen

Fr.: pont d'Einstein-Rosen   

A hypothetical structure that can join two distant regions of → space-time through a tunnel-like shortcut, as predicted by → general relativity. The Einstein-Rosen bridge is based on the → Schwarzschild solution of → Einstein's field equations. It is the simplest type of → wormholes.

Albert Einstein & Nathan Rosen (1935, Phys.Rev. 48, 73); → bridge.

Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit (GZK)
  حد ِ گریسن-زاتسپین-کوزمین   
hadd-e Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin

Fr.: limite de Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin   

A theoretical limit of approximately 6 × 1019  → electron-volts for the energy of → cosmic rays above which they would lose energy in their interaction with the → cosmic microwave radiation background photons. Cosmic ray protons with these energies produce → pions on blackbody photons via the Δ resonance according to: γCMB + p → p + π0, or γCMB + p → n + π+, thereby losing a large fraction of their energy. These interactions would reduce the energy of the cosmic rays to below the GZK limit. Due to this phenomenon, → Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are absorbed within about 50 Mpc.

Named after Kenneth Greisen (1966), Physical Review Letters 16, 748 and Georgiy Zatsepin & Vadim Kuzmin (1966), Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters 4, 78; → limit.

in-
  ۱) در-؛ ۲) نا-، بی-، ان-، اَ-   
1) dar-; 2) nâ-, bi-, an-, a-

Fr.: en-   

1) Prefix meaning "into, in, on, upon, toward, at;" variants im-; il-; ir- by assimilation of -n- with the following consonant. It occurs also sometimes as en, in loans from O.Fr.
2) Prefix meaning "not, opposite of, without."

1) From L. in; cf. Gk. en; P.Gmc. *in (cf. O.Fris, Du., Ger., Goth. in); O.E. in, inne "within."
2) From L. in- "not," cognate with Gk. an-; O.Pers./Av. an-, a- "not, without;" Skt. an-, a- "not;" P.Gmc. *un-; O.E. un-.

1) Dar- "in," from Mid.Pers. andar, → intra-.
2) nâ-, na "not," ma- "not" (prohibitive); Mid.Pers. nê, ma "no, not;" O.Pers. naiy, nai "not;" Av. nôit, naē "not;" cf. Skt. "not;" L. ne-, in-, un-; Gk. ni; Lith. ; O.C.S. ne "not;" PIE *ne-.
bi- privative prefix, from Mid.Pers. abi-, O.Pers. *apaiy-, Av. apa-.
a-, an-, from O.Pers./Av. negation prefix appearing before consonants and vowels respectively. A couple of examples in Mod.Pers.: amordâd "immortality, name of the fifth month in the Iranian calendar," anušé; "fortunate, happy," anirani "non Iranian," âhu "vice, defect," âsoqdé "unburnt, half-burnt wood."

Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction
  ترنگش ِ کلوین-هلمهولتس   
terengeš-e Kelvin-Helmholtz

Fr.: contraction de Kelvin-Helmholtz   

The contraction of a volume of gas under its → gravity, accompanied by the → radiation of the lost → potential energy as → heat.

After the Scottish physicist William Thomson, also known as Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) and the German physicist and physician Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894), who made important contributions to the thermodynamics of gaseous systems; → contraction.

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
  ناپایداری ِ کلوین-هلمهولتس   
nâpâydâri-ye Kelvin-Helmholtz (#)

Fr.: instabilité de Kelvin-Helmholtz   

An → instability raised when there is sufficient velocity difference across the interface between two uniformly moving → incompressible fluid layers, or when velocity → shear is present within a continuous fluid.

Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction; → instability.

Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ کلوین-هلمهولتس   
sâzokâr-e Kelvin-Helmholtz

Fr.: mécanisme Kelvin-Helmholtz   

The heating of a body that contracts under its own gravity. For a large body like a planet or star, gravity tries to compress the body. This compression heats the core of the body, which results in internal energy which in turn is radiated as → thermal energy. In this way a star could be heated by its own weight.

William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and Hermann von Helmholtz proposed that the sun derived its energy from the conversion of gravitational potential energy; → mechanism.

Kelvin-Helmholtz time
  زمان ِ کلوین-هلمهولتس   
zamân-e Kelvin-Helmholtz

Fr.: échelle de temps de Kelvin-Helmholtz   

The characteristic time that would be required for a contracting spherical cloud of gas to transform all its → gravitational energy into → thermal energy. It is given by the relation: tKH ≅ GM2/RL, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the cloud, R the initial radius, and L the → luminosity. The Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale determines how quickly a pre-main sequence star contracts before → nuclear fusion starts. For the Sun it is 3 x 107 years, which also represents the time scale on which the Sun would contract if its nuclear source were turned off. Moreover, this time scale indicates that the gravitational energy cannot account for the solar luminosity. For a → massive star of M = 30 Msun, the Kelvin-Helmholtz time is only about 3 x 104 years.

Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction; → time.

main-sequence fitting
  سزکرد ِ رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
sazkard-e reshteh-ye farist

Fr.: ajustement par la séquence principale   

The method of determining the distance to a star cluster by overlaying its main sequence on the theoretical zero-age main sequence and noting the difference between the cluster's apparent magnitude and the zero-age main sequence's absolute magnitude.

main sequence; → fitting.

main-sequence turnoff
  رهگشت ِ رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
rahgašt-e rešte-ye farist

Fr.: tournant final de la séquence principale   

The point on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of a star cluster at which stars begin to leave the → main sequence and move toward the → red giant branch. The main-sequence turnoff is a measure of age. In general, the older a star cluster, the fainter the main-sequence turnoff. Same as → turnoff point.

main sequence; → turnoff.

spin-down
  کند-چرخی   
kond-carxi

Fr.: ralentissement   

A phenomenon in which the rotation period of a pulsar steadily decreases with the pulsar age. The cause of the spin-down is magnetic torque due to the strong fields threading out from the pulsar. The magnetic energy is being converted to high-energy particles and radiation from the nebula. Observed spin-down rates range from about 10-5 seconds/year for the youngest pulsars to about 10-12 seconds/year for recycled pulsars. The Crab pulsar is slowing down at a rate of about 10-5 seconds/year. Knowing the rotation period and the lengthening rate of a pulsar leads to its age.

spin; down, M.E.; O.E. ofdune "downward," from dune "from the hill."

Kond-carxi, from kond "slow; dull" + carxrotate + -i noun suffix.

spin-flip scattering
  پراکنش با وارونی ِ اسپین   
parâkaneš bâ vâruni-ye espin

Fr.: diffusion avec renversement du spin   

Quantum mechanics: The scattering of a particle that reverses the spin direction.

spin; flip, from flip-flap; → scattering.

Parâkaneš, → scattering; "with;" vâruni, noun from vârun, → inverse; espin, → spin.

spin-orbit coupling
  جفسری ِ اسپین-مدار، جفتش ِ ~   
jafsari-ye espin-madâr, jofteš-e ~

Fr.: couplage spin-orbite   

1) Astro.: A relationship between the orbital period of one body around another and its rotational period on its axis. The relationship results from tidal forces between the two bodies. For example, the rotation period of the Moon equals its revolution period around the Earth.
2) Quantum mechanics: The interaction between a particle's → spin angular momentum and its → orbital angular momentum.

spin; → orbit; → coupling.