full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)
Fr.: largeur à mi-hauteur
The full width of a → profile (spectral line or a cross-cut in an image component) at half-maximum intensity.
Fr.: maximum local
The greatest value attained (or attainable) by a function; the opposite of minimum.
From L. maximum, neuter of maximus "greatest," superlative of magnus "great, large" cognate with Pers. meh "great, large" (Mid.Pers. mah, mas; Av. maz-, masan-, mazant- "great, important," mazan- "greatness, majesty," mazišta- "greatest;" cf. Skt. mah-, mahant-; Gk. megas; PIE *meg- "great").
Bišiné, from biš "much, more; great" (from Mid.Pers. veš "more, longer; more frequently," related to vas "many, much" (Mod.Pers. bas); O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + -in superlative suffix + -é nuance suffix.
maximum density of water
cagâli-ye bišine-ye âb
Fr.: densité maximale de l'eau
The density of pure water occurring at 3.98 °C, which is 1.0000 g cm-3, or 1000 kg m-3. Water when cooled down contracts normally until the temperature is 3.98 °C, after which it expands. Because the maximum density of water occurs at about 4 °C, water becomes increasingly lighter at 3 °C, 2 °C, 1 °C, and 0 °C (→ freezing point). The density of liquid water at 0 °C is greater than the density of frozen water at the same temperature. Thus water is heavier as a liquid than as a solid, and this is why ice floats on water. When a mass of water cools below 4 °C, the density decreases and allows water to rise to the surface, where freezing occurs. The layer of ice formed on the surface does not sink and it acts as a thermal isolator, thus protecting the biological environment beneath it. This property of water liquid is very unusual; molecules pack more closely than in the crystal structure of ice. The reason is that → hydrogen bonds between liquid water are not stable, they are continuously broken and new bonds are created. In the crystal structure of ice molecules have a fixed pattern creating empty space between molecules.
maximum entropy method (MEM)
raveš-e dargâšt-e bišiné
Fr.: méthode d'entropie maximum
A deconvolution algorithm which functions by minimizing a smoothness function in an image. The MEM seeks to extract as much information from a measurement as is justified by the data's signal-to-noise ratio.
Fr.: maximum de lumière
Fr.: maximum de vraisemblance
A statistical procedure based on choosing the value of the unknown parameter under which the probability of obtaining an observed sample is highest.
Fr.: maximum solaire