1) Applying equally to both positive and negative ions.
Fr.: diffusion ambipolaire
A physical process which allows a → molecular cloud to decouple from → interstellar magnetic field in order to undergo → gravitational collapse. A cloud of pure molecular gas would form stars very fast through collapse since neutral matter does not respond to the magnetic field. However, the magnetic field holds up a collapse because the ions present in the cloud collide with the neutrals and tie them to the field. The collapse can then only proceed if the magnetic field can be separated from the gas. In denser molecular cores the ionization degree decreases substantially and therefore neutrals and ions decouple.
qotbeš-e tarz-e B
Fr.: polarisation en mode B
A → polarization component in the → cosmic microwave background radiation that depends only on → curl, is independent of → gradient, and has → handedness that distinguishes left from right. The B-mode is due to only → vector perturbations or → tensor perturbations. It has two types, the first type, which constitutes the majority of the B-mode polarization, results from → lensing by galaxies that twist the → E-mode polarized light on its journey from the other side of the → observable Universe. The second type can be produced only by → gravitational waves, not by density perturbations. This type of B-mode is incredibly faint, producing temperature variations of about 0.4 microK and accounting for just one part in 10 million in the CMB temperature distribution. It is expected to be generated during cosmic → inflation shortly after the → Big Bang. The → BICEP2 team announced in March 2014 that they had detected the second type of B-modes, consistent with inflation and gravitational waves in the → early Universe. The detected degree scale B-mode polarization has a tensor-to-scalar ratio, r = 0.2 (+0.07, -0.05), which is a measure of the amplitude of the primordial gravitational waves.
Having two poles; having two opposite main structures or components.
Fr.: flot bipolaire
Same as → bipolar outflow.
Fr.: jet bipolaire
One of two beams of high-temperature, ionized gas ejected in two opposite directions associated with a → protostar. The collimated jets, a consequence of the → accretion process, can extend over distances of several → light-years.
Fr.: nébuleuse bipolaire
An interstellar cloud of ionized gas with two main lobes which lie symmetrically on either side of a central star. The bipolar shape is generally due to the ejection of material by the central star in opposing directions.
Fr.: flot bipolaire
A flow of gaseous material in two opposite directions emanating from protostellar regions or from → evolved stars during the early post-→ AGB evolution. In protostellar regions → molecular outflows are pushed by → bipolar jets.
qotbeš-e parhuni, ~ dâyereyi (#)
Fr.: polarisation circulaire
The → polarization of an → electromagnetic radiation in which the electric field vector describes a circle about the direction of propagation at any point in the path of the radiation. Circular polarization is a combination of two perpendicular → linearly polarized waves that are 90 degrees out of phase with each other. Circular polarization may be referred to as "right-hand" or "left-hand," depending on the rotation direction as viewed by the observer.
circularly polarized light
nur-e qotbide-ye dâyere-yi
Fr.: lumière polarisée circulairement
Light exhibiting → circular polarization.
Situated around or near a pole, as of the Earth or the sky. → circumpolar star.
setâre-ye pirâqotbi (#)
Fr.: étoile circumpolaire
Star that, from a given observer's → latitude, does not rise or set, but circles around the → celestial pole. To be circumpolar, a star must have a polar distance that is less than the observer's latitude. Whether a given star is circumpolar at the observer's latitude (φ) may be calculated in terms of the star's → declination (δ). The star is circumpolar if φ + δ ≥ +90° (observer in northern hemisphere), or φ + δ ≤ -90° (observer in southern hemisphere).
cosmic microwave background polarization
qotbeš-e zamine-ye rizmowj-e keyhâni
Fr.: polarisation du rayonnement du fond cosmique microonde
The polarization of the → cosmic microwave background radiation due to → Thomson scattering by → free electrons during the → recombination era. The polarization can greatly enhance the precision with which the parameters associated with → acoustic oscillations are derived; because it carries directional information on the sky. When an → electromagnetic wave is incident on a free electron, the scattered wave is polarized perpendicular to the incidence direction. If the incident radiation were → isotropic or had only a → dipole variation, the scattered radiation would have no net polarization. However, if the incident radiation from perpendicular directions (separated by 90°) had different intensities, a net → linear polarization would result. Such → anisotropy is called → quadrupole because the poles of anisotropy are 360°/4 = 90° apart.
degree of polarization
Fr.: degré de polarisation
The ratio of the intensity of polarized portion of light to the total intensity at a point in the beam.
Reducing or randomizing the polarization of an electromagnetic wave, by transmission through a non-homogeneous medium or a depolarizer.
Of or relating to a → dipole.
dipolar magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye dipoli, ~ ~ diqotbi
Fr.: champ magnétique dipolaire
qotbeš-e tarz-e E
Fr.: polarisation en mode E
A → polarization component in the → cosmic microwave background radiation that depends only on → gradient, is independent of → curl and does not have → handedness. In contrast to the → B-mode, the E-mode may be due to both the → scalar perturbations and → tensor perturbations.
Fr.: polarization elliptique
The → polarization of an → electromagnetic radiation in which the electric vector at any point in the path of the beam describes an ellipse in a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. Elliptical polarization results from the combination of two perpendicular → linearly polarized waves whose → phase difference is other than 0, 90, or 180°. The form of the ellipse is determined by the amplitudes of the component waves and the phase difference. → Linear polarization and → circular polarization can be considered as limiting cases of elliptical polarization.
elliptically polarized light
nur-e qotbide-ye beyzigun
Fr.: lumière polarisée elliptiquement
Light exhibiting → elliptical polarization.