An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < atm Ray > >>

Number of Results: 33 Search : scatter
atmospheric scattering
  پراکنش ِ جوی   
parâkaneš-e javvi

Fr.: diffusion atmosphérique   

The → scattering of → electromagnetic radiation by various particles in the Earth's → atmosphere. The phenomenon is caused by collisions between photons and several scattering agents such as atoms, molecules, → aerosols, and water droplets in clouds. → Rayleigh scattering.

atmospheric; → scattering.

backscatter
  ۱) پس-پراکندن ۲)، ۳) پس-پراکنش   
1) pas-parâkandan; 2), 3) pas-parâkaneš

Fr.: rétrodiffusion   

1) (v.tr.) To deflect photons or particles in a direction opposite to their initial path.
2) Same as → backscattering.
3) The radiation or particles so deflected.

From → back + → scattering.

backscattered light
  نور ِ پس-پراکنده   
nur-e pas-parâkandé

Fr.: lumière rétrodiffusée   

The light that has undergone → backscattering.

backscatter; → backscattering.

backscattering
  پس-پراکنش   
pas-parâkaneš

Fr.: rétrodiffusion   

Scattering of radiation or particles through angles greater than 90° with respect to the original direction of motion.

scattering.

Brillouin scattering
  پراکنش ِ بری‌یویءن   
parâkaneš-e Brillouin

Fr.: diffusion de Brillouin   

Scattering of electromagnetic waves in solids and liquids when, as a result of the scattering process, an acoustic → phonon is emitted or absorbed. Brillouin scattering is analogous to → Raman scattering.

Brillouin zone; → scattering.

coherent scattering
  پراکنش ِ همدوس   
parâkaneš-e hamdus

Fr.: diffusion cohérente   

A scattering process in which the scattered radiation bears the same frequency and phase as the incident radiation.

coherent; → scattering.

Compton scattering
  پراکنشِ کامپتون   
parâkaneš-e Compton (#)

Fr.: diffusion Compton   

Scattering of a → photon due to the → Compton effect.

Compton; → scattering.

dust scattering
  پراکنش ِ غباری، ~ پت غبار   
parâkaneš-e qobâri, ~ pat qobâr

Fr.: diffusion par la poussière   

The scattering of → photons by → dust grains.

dust; → scattering.

elastic scattering
  پراکنش ِ کشایند   
parâkaneš-e kešâyand

Fr.: diffusion élastique   

In a → collision between two → particles, the reaction in which the total → kinetic energy of the system, projectile plus target, is the same before the collision as after.
In the interaction of → electromagnetic waves with particles, the scattering when the → wavelength (→ frequency) of the → scattered light is the same as the → incident light (→ Rayleigh scattering, → Mie scattering).

elastic; → scattering.

electron-scattering wing
  بال ِ پراکنش ِ الکترون   
bâl-e parâkaneš-e elektron

Fr.:   

A → line broadening phenomenon involving the scattering effect of → free electrons on the → radiation transfer in → stellar atmospheres. The scattering of radiation by free electrons plays an important role in the atmospheres of → hot stars, such as → O-types, early → B-types, and → Wolf-Rayet stars. The first detailed study of electron scattering in Wolf-Rayet stars was by Castor et al. (1970), who used electron scattering to explain the broad emission wings of N IV λ3483 in HD 192163. In → P Cygni stars the explanation of the very extended (almost symmetric) wings on the → Balmer lines as caused by electron scattering was first made by Bernat & Lambert (1978). Hillier (1991) showed that significant reduction in the strength of an electron-scattering wing can be achieved in a model of → clumped wind for a lower mean → mass loss rate. This resulted in a better agreement between observations and theoretical predictions. Electron-scattering wings provide diagnostics regarding the presence of density inhomogeneities in → stellar winds (Münch, 1948, ApJ 108, 116; Hillier, 1991, A&A 247, 455).

electron; → scattering; → wing.

forward scattering
  پراکنش ِ پیش-سو   
parâkaneš-e piš-su

Fr.: diffusion en avant   

Scattering in which photons emerge from the → scattering medium travelling predominantly in the same direction as they entered. The → halos around the Sun and Moon in wet weather are caused by forward scattering by water droplets in the Earth's atmosphere. → backscattering.

forward; → scattering.

geometric scattering
  پراکنش ِ هندسی   
parâkaneš-e hendesi

Fr.: diffusion géométrique   

A type of scattering in which the wavelength (of the light or the sound) is much smaller than the size of object causing the scattering.

geometric; → scattering.

inelastic scattering
  پراکنش ِ ناکشایند   
parâkaneš-e nâkešâyand

Fr.: diffusion inélastique   

A type of scattering when the → scattered radiation has a → wavelength different from that of the → incident radiation (→ Raman scattering, → fluorescence ).

inelastic; → scattering.

last scattering
  واپسین پراکنش   
vâpasin parâkaneš

Fr.: dernière diffusion   

The epoch in the early evolution of the Universe when matter and photons decoupled. Once atoms formed, light and matter stopped constantly interacting with one another, and photons were able to travel freely. As a result, the Universe became transparent. Light from this period is observed today as the → cosmic microwave background radiation. Same as → decoupling era and → recombination era.

last; → scattering.

last scattering surface
  رویه‌ی ِ واپسین پراکنش   
ruye-ye vâpasin parâkaneš

Fr.: surface de dernière diffusion   

The set of locations in space corresponding to the → last scattering epoch in the early Universe. It is a spherical surface around the present-day observer from which the → cosmic microwave background radiation appears to emanate.

last; → scattering; → surface.

Mie scattering
  پراکنش ِ می   
parâkaneš-e Mie

Fr.: diffusion de Mie   

The scattering of → electromagnetic waves by → particles of → size comparable to the radiation → wavelength. Mie scattering depends weakly upon the wavelength, hence the → scattered light spectrum is similar to that of the → incident light. Mie scattering explains the → white color of clouds when scattering is due to → water droplets having a size of few microns. Cloud → droplets with a diameter of around 20 microns or so are large enough to scatter all visible wavelengths more or less equally. Because all wavelengths are scattered, clouds appear to be white. When clouds become very deep, less and less of the incoming solar radiation makes it through to the bottom of the cloud, which gives these clouds a darker appearance.

Named after Gustav Adolf Mie (1868-1957), a German physicist, whose theory of 1908 explains the process; → scattering.

multiple scattering
  پراکنش ِ بستایی   
parâkaneš-e bastâyi

Fr.: diffusion multiple   

A process of → radiative transfer in which more than one → scattering event may be of importance before → transmission, → reflection, or → absorption. In → radiation-driven winds photon scattering can take place in different → spectral lines. Each scattering occurs in a different spectral line, and successive scatterings occur at lower energies (longer wavelength). The standard theory of line driving (→ CAK model) assumes that photons can be scattered only once in the wind, which is a reasonable assumption for normal → O stars. In → Wolf-Rayet stars, where photons evolve in an atmosphere with a strong → ionization stratification, multiple scattering is important. Indeed the strength of W-R winds appears to exceed the single scattering limit.

multiple; → scattering.

noncoherent scattering
  پراکنش ِ ناهمدوس   
parâkaneš-e nâhamdus

Fr.: diffusion incohérente   

The absorption of a photon and its re-emission at a different frequency (in the observer's frame of reference) by scattering atoms.

non-; → coherent scattering.

quasi-single-scattering approximation
  نزدینش ِ چونان-تک‌پراکنش   
nazdineš-e cunân-tak-parâkaneš

Fr.:   

A model of radiative transfer that ignores forward scattering of photons; assuming forward-scattered light as un-scattered.

quasi-; → single; → scattering; → approximation.

Raman scattering
  پراکنش ِ رامان   
parâkaneš-e Raman (#)

Fr.: diffusion Raman   

The scattering of monochromatic light (visible or ultraviolet) by molecules in which the scattered light differs in wavelength from the incident light. It is caused by the light's interaction with the vibrational or rotational energy of the medium's scattering molecules.

Raman effect; → scattering.

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