An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 34 Search : second
arc second
  کمان-ثانیه، ثانیه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-sâniyé, sâniye-ye kamâni

Fr.: seconde de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/3.600 of a degree.

arc; → second.

Bohr's second postulate
  فراوس ِ دوم ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e dovom-e Bohr

Fr.: deuxième postulat de Bohr   

One of the postulates used in the → Bohr model, whereby when an atom is in the steady state an electron travelling in a circular orbit should have → quantized values of the → angular momentum which comply with the condition p = n(h/2π), where p is the angular momentum of the electron, h is → Planck's constant, and n is a positive integer called → quantum number.

Bohr; → second; → postulate.

ephemeris second
  ثانیه‌ی ِ روزیجی   
sâniye-ye ruziji

Fr.: seconde des éphémérides   

The length of a tropical second (1/31,556,925.97474 of the tropical year) on 1900 January 0.5 → ephemeris time.

ephemeris; → second.

Kepler's second law
  قانون ِ دوم ِ کپلر   
qânun-e dovom-e Kepler (#)

Fr.: deuxième loi de Kepler   

A line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

Kepler; → second; → law.

leap second
  ثانیه‌ی ِ اندرهلی   
sâniyeh-ye andarheli

Fr.: seconde intercalaire   

A one-second added between 60s and 0s at announced times to keep the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), counted by atomic clocks, within 0s.90 of mean solar time (UT1). Generally, leap seconds are added at the end of June or December.

leap; → second.

  نور-ثانیه، ثانیه‌ی ِ نوری   
nur-sâniyé, sâniye-ye nuri

Fr.: second-lumière   

The distance travelled by light in free space in one second. It is equivalent to 2.997924580 × 108 m or 2.998 × 105 km. This unit of length is mainly used in astronomy, telecommunications, and relativistic physics. Some quantities expressed in this unit are as follows. The mean diameter of the Earth: about 0.0425 light-seconds. The average distance from the Earth to the Moon: about 1.282 light-seconds. The diameter of the Sun: about 4.643 light-seconds. The average distance from the Earth to the Sun: 499.0 light-seconds.

light; → second.

millisecond pulsar
  پولسار ِ میلی‌ثانیه، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e milisâniyé (#), tapâr-e ~ (#)

Fr.: pulsar milliseconde   

A type of pulsar that spins around its axis every few thousands of a second. The prototype 1937+21, discovered in 1982, has a period of 1.56 milliseconds; i.e. it spins more than 600 times per second, the fastest so far found (Backer et al. 1982, Nature 300, 615). These pulsars are distinguished from typical pulsars by the extreme stability of their rotation period. It is thought that they have been rejuvenated by a "spin-up process" involving the accumulation of matter from a companion star. → recycled pulsar.

milli-; → second; → pulsar.

Newton's second law of motion
  دومین قانون ِ نیوتنی ِ جنبش   
dovomin qânun-e Newtoni-ye jonbeš (#)

Fr.: seconde loi newtonienne de mouvement   

For an unbalanced force acting on a body, the acceleration produced is proportional to the force impressed; the constant of proportionality is the inertial mass of the body.

Newton; → second; → law; → motion.

  ۱) دوم، دومین؛ ۲) ثانیه   
1) dovom (#), dovomin (#); 2) sâniyé (#)

Fr.: seconde   

1) Next after the first in place, time, or value.
2) The unit of time in the International System since 1967. The SI second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the ground state of cesium 133.

M.E., from O.Fr. second, from L. secundus "following, next in order," from root of sequi "to follow;" PIE base *sekw- "to follow;" cf. Pers. az from; Mid.Pers. hac "from;" Av. hac-, hax- "to follow," hacaiti "follows" (O.Pers. hacā "from;" Av. hacā "from, out of;" Skt. sácā "with"); Skt. sácate "accompanies, follows;" Gk. hepesthai "to follow;" Lith. seku "to follow."

1) Dovom, dovomin "ordinal number of do, two" (Mid.Pers. do; Av. dva-; cf. Skt. dvi-; Gk. duo; L. duo; (Fr. deux; E. two; Ger. zwei).
2) Sâniyé, from Ar. sâniyat (feminine) "second."

second approximation
  نزدینش ِ دوم   
nazdineš-e dovom

Fr.: deuxième approximation   

Math: In calculus, limiting an equation to its second derivative, for example: ex≅ 1 + x + x2/2. Also called linear approximation. → first approximation.

second; → approximation.

second collapse
  رمبش ِ دوم   
rombeš-e dovom

Fr.: deuxième effondrement   

An early evolutionary period in the process of star formation which succeeds the → first collapse. When the mass of the → first core has increased by about a factor 2 and the radius has decreased by a similar factor, the central temperature of the core reaches about 2000 K. At this point the → molecular hydrogen begins to dissociate into atoms. This reduces the → adiabatic index (γ) below the critical value 4/3, with the result that the material at the center of the core becomes unstable and begins to collapse. Most of the gravitational energy generated by this collapse goes into the → dissociation of H2 molecules, so that the temperature rises only slowly with increasing density. In this second collapse phase, as in the first, the density distribution in the collapsing region becomes more and more sharply peaked at center, and the time scale becomes shorter and shorter with increasing central density. The central collapse of the core continues until the hydrogen molecules are nearly all dissociated and γ again rises above 4/3. The central pressure then rises rapidly and once again becomes sufficient to decelerate and stop the collapse at the center. A small core in the → hydrostatic equilibrium then arises, bounded by a shock front in which the surrounding infalling material is suddenly stopped. The initial mass and radius of the second core are about 3 x 1030 g (1.5 x 10-3Msun) and 9 x 1010 cm (1.3 Rsun) respectively, and the central density and temperature are about 2 x 10-2 g cm-3 and 2 x 104 K, respectively. The second core will evolve into a → young stellar object (R. B. Larson, 1969, MNRAS 145, 271).

second; → collapse.

second contact
  پرماس ِ دوم   
parmâs-e dovom

Fr.: deuxième contact   

The beginning of the total phase of a solar eclipse when the leading edge of the Moon touches the eastern edge of the Sun completely obscuring the Sun.

second; → contact.

second core
  مغزه‌ی ِ دوم   
maqze-ye dovom

Fr.: deuxième cœur   

A hydrostatic object predicted to result from the → second collapse of a → molecular cloud in an early stage of star formation.

second; → core.

second dredge-up
  برونکشید ِ دوم   
borunkašid-e dovom

Fr.: deuxième dragage   

A → dredge-up process that occurs after core helium burning, in which the convective envelope penetrates much more deeply, pushing hydrogen burning shell into close proximity with the helium burning shell (→ first dredge-up). This arrangement is unstable and leads to burning pulses. The reason is that the hydrogen shell burns out until there is enough helium for the helium combustion to occur and all the helium is rapidly burnt. Afterward the hydrogen shell again burns outward and the process repeats.

second; → dredge-up.

second generation star
  ستاره‌ی ِ آزانش ِ دوم   
setâre-ye âzâneš-e dovom

Fr.: étoile de deuxième génération   

A star whose formation is induced by an older star itself formed previously in the same region. See also → stimulated star formation, → sequential star formation, → triggered star formation.

second; → generation; → star.

second law of black-hole mechanics
  قانون ِ دوم ِ مکانیک ِ سیه‌چال   
qânun-e dovom-e mekânik-e siyah-câl

Fr.: deuxième loi de la mécanique des trous noirs   

The surface area of a black hole's horizon can never decrease.

second; → law; → black hole; → mechanics.

second law of thermodynamics
  قانون ِ دوم ِ گرماتوانیک   
qânun-e dovom-e garmâtavânik

Fr.: deuxième loi de la thermodynamique   

1) Heat cannot be transferred from a colder to a hotter body without some other effect, i.e. without → work being done. Expressed in terms of → entropy: the entropy of an → isolated system tends toward a maximum and its available energy tends toward a minimum.
2) In language of → statistical physics, an isolated physical system will tend toward an equilibrium → macrostate with as large a total → entropy as possible, because then the number of → microstates is the largest. See also → Kelvin's postulate, → Clausius's postulate.

second; → law; → thermodynamics.

second quantization
  کو‌آنتومش ِ دوم   
kuântomeš-e dovom

Fr.: deuxième quantification   

In quantum mechanics, the quantization of the field that replaces potential in Newtonian mechanics, whereby the field variables become operators from which the creation (of particle) operators and destruction operators can be constructed.

second; → quantization.

second-order logic
  گوییک ِ رایه‌ی ِ دوم   
guyik-e râye-ye dovom

Fr.: logique du seconde ordre   

An n extension of → first-order logic that quantifies not only → variables that range over → individuals, but also quantifies over → relations.

second; → order; → predicate; → logic.


Fr.: secondaire   

1) Derived or derivative; not primary or original.
2) Belonging or pertaining to a second order, division, stage, period, rank, grade, etc.
3) → secondary body.
See also:
secondary atmosphere, → secondary calibrator, → secondary cell, → secondary cosmic rays, → secondary crater, → secondary eclipse, → secondary electrons, → secondary emission, → secondary mirror, → secondary star.

From → second + -ary a suffix occurring on adjectives (elementary; honorary; stationary) and nouns denoting objects, especially receptacles or places (library; rosary; glossary).

Dovomân, from dovom, → second.

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