Fr.: coquille circumstellaire
A shell of dust, molecules, and neutral gas around an evolved star resulting from an intensive mass loss phase, such as the asymptotic giant branch phase for low- and intermediate mass stars and LBVs or supernovae for massive stars.
double shell burning
suzeš-e puste-ye dotâyi
Fr.: combustion double coquille
A situation in the evolution of an → asymptotic giant branch star whereby both hydrogen and helium shells provide energy alternatively. As the burning → helium shell approaches the hydrogen-helium discontinuity, its luminosity decreases because it runs out of the fuel. As a consequence, the layers above contract in response, thus heating the extinguished → hydrogen shell until it is re-ignited. However, the shells do not burn at the same rate: the He burning shell becomes thermally unstable and undergoes periodic → thermal pulses.
Fr.: couche de Dyson
→ Dyson sphere.
puste-ye elekroni (#)
Fr.: couche éléctronique
Any of up to seven energy levels on which an electron may exist within an atom, the energies of the electrons on the same level being equal and on different levels being unequal. The number of electrons permitted in a shell is equal to 2n2. A shell contains n2 orbitals, and n subshells.
helium shell burning
suzeš-e puste-ye heliom
Fr.: combustion de la coquille d'hélium
A stage in the evolution of an → asymptotic giant branch star, when all the helium in the core is fused into carbon and oxygen. No more fusion takes place in the core, and as a result the core contracts. The core contraction generates a sufficient temperature for fusing the surrounding layers of helium. Since helium shell burning is unstable, it causes → helium shell flashes.
helium shell flash
deraxš-e puste-ye heliomi
Fr.: flash de la couche d'hélium
A violent outburst of energy that occurs periodically in an → asymptotic giant branch star. It occurs when helium is being burnt in a thin shell surrounding the inner dense core of carbon and oxygen. → Helium shell burning is unstable, producing energy mainly in short intense flashes. The shell flash causes considerable expansion of the star followed by collapse, thus setting up deep convection. As a consequence, the → convective zone in the outer part of the star goes deeper and may → dredge-up carbon to the surface. See also → late thermal pulse; → very late thermal pulse; → AGB final thermal pulse.
hydrogen shell burning
suzeš-e puste-ye hidrožen
Fr.: combustion de la coquille d'hydrogène
A phase in the life of a star that has left the → main sequence. When no more hydrogen is available in the core, the core will start to contract as it is no longer releasing the necessary energy whose pressure supports the surrounding layers. As a result of this contraction, gravitational energy is converted into thermal energy and the temperature will rise. Therefore a shell of unprocessed material surrounding the original core will be heated sufficiently for hydrogen burning to start. During the evolution of → asymptotic giant branch stars hydrogen shell burning occurs alternatively with helium shell burning. → double shell burning.
Newton's shell theorem
farbin-e puste-ye Newton
Fr.: théorème de Newton
In classical mechanics, an analytical method applied to a material sphere to determine the gravitational field at a point outside or inside the sphere. Newton's shell theorem states that: 1) The gravitational field outside a uniform spherical shell (i.e. a hollow ball) is the same as if the entire mass of the shell is concentrated at the center of the sphere. 2) The gravitational field inside the spherical shell is zero, regardless of the location within the shell. 3) Inside a solid sphere of constant density, the gravitational force varies linearly with distance from the center, being zero at the center of mass. For the relativistic generalization of this theorem, see → Birkhoff's theorem.
sadaf (#), kelâcak (#)
The hard shell of a marine mollusk.
Sadaf, loan from Ar. Kelâcak from Tabari, variant kelâcin, cf. Gilaki guš kuli. The component kel-, kul might be related to PIE *qarq- "to be hard," → crab.
Fr.: coquille; couche
1) General: A relatively thin external form covering a hollow space.
M.E.; O.E. sciell, scill "seashell, eggshell," related to O.E. scealu "shell, husk;" cf. W.Fris. skyl "peel, rind," M.L.G. schelle "rind, egg shell," Goth. skalja "tile;" PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut, cleave."
Pusté "shell," from pust "skin;" Mid.Pers. pôst "skin;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Av. pastô-, in pastô.fraθanhəm "of the breadth of the skin;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth."
Fr.: combustion en couche
The nuclear reactions in a shell around a star's core that continue after the fuel in the core itself has been exhausted. As the fuel is progressively exhausted, the shell moves outward until it enters regions too cool for the reactions to continue. For example, after the exhaustion of hydrogen in the core, helium burning might take place in the core with a shell of hydrogen burning surrounding it. Stars may have more than one region of shell burning during their stellar evolution, each shell with its own nuclear reactions. → hydrogen shell burning; → helium shell burning.
Fr.: galaxie en coquille
An elliptical galaxy that is surrounded by thin shells of stars which are thought to have been ejected during a galaxy merger. Shell galaxies are different from ring galaxies in that the shells are much further away from the galaxy's centre and much fainter than the rings. Spectroscopy of the stars in the shell show that they are old whereas the stars in a ring galaxy are young.
Fr.: étoile à enveloppe
A main-sequence star, usually of spectral class B to F, whose spectrum shows bright emission lines superimposed on the normal absorption lines. The emission spectrum is explained by the presence of a circumstellar shell of gas surrounding the star at the equator. Shell stars are fast rotators.
Fr.: rotation coquillaire
A rotation mode in which internal rotation of a star depends essentially on depth and little on latitude: Ω(r,θ) = Ω(r), where r is the mean distance to the stellar center of the considered level surface (or → isobar). This particular mode was introduced by J.-P. Zahn (1992, A&A 265, 115) to simplify the treatment of rotational → mixing, but also on more physical grounds. Indeed differential rotation tends to be smoothed out in latitude through → shear turbulence. See also → von Zeipel theorem; → meridional circulation .
Shellular, the structure of this term is not clear; it may be a combination of → shell (referring to star's assumed division in differentially rotating concentric shells) + (circ)ular, → circular. The first bibliographic occurrence of shellular is seemingly in Ghosal & Spiegel (1991, On the Thermonuclear Convection: I. Shellular Instability, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 61, 161). However, surprisingly the term appears only in the title, and nowhere in the body of the article; → rotation.
pustey-e bâzmânde-ye abar-now-axtar
Fr.: coquille de reste de supernova
Fr.: sous couche
A set of electrons with the same angular momentum quantum number, denote l. The number of electrons permitted in a subshell is equal to 2l + 1.