Fr.: sphère d'Abbe
Fr.: sphère armillaire
An ancient instrument, used since ancient times until the Middle ages and later, to determine positions of celestial bodies. It consisted of an assemblage of rings, all circles of the same sphere, designed to represent the positions of the important circles of the celestial sphere.
L. armillarius, from armilla "arm ring, bracelet," from armus "arm" + → sphere.
Zâtolhelaq from Ar. "multi-ringed," from zât "holder, keeper" + helaq "rings," from halqah "ring."
Asthenosphere, from Gk. asthenes "weak" + → sphere.
Sostsepehr, from sost "weak, tender" + sepehr, → sphere.
javv (#), havâsepehr
1) The gaseous envelope surrounding a star, planet, or moon.
Several solar system planets
retain considerable atmospheres, due to their strong
gravitational force. The gas motions in the planetary
atmosphere, as a response to the heating, coupled with the rotation
forces, generate the meteorological systems. The planetary satellites
→ Titan and → Triton
also have atmospheres (M.S.: SDE).
New L. atmosphaera, from Gk. atmos "vapor" + spharia "sphere."
The part of a planet or moon within which life can occur. It may include the crust, oceans, and atmosphere.
Fr.: photosphère de corps noir
The → blackbody surface of the → Universe defined at a → redshift of about z ≥ 2 × 106. This is distinct from the → last scattering surface, in other words the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), which refers to z = 1100. Prior to the epoch of the blackbody photosphere the distortions from the → Big Bang are exponentially suppressed.
epehr-e Bonnor-Ebert, kore-ye ~
Fr.: sphère de Bonnor-Ebert
A sphere of interstellar gas at uniform temperature in equilibrium under its own gravitation and an external pressure. The pressure of a hotter surrounding medium causes the sphere to collapse. → Bonnor-Ebert mass.
Fr.: sphère ardente
A piece of glass of roundish shape, possibly made of rock crystals or a globular container filled with water, whose use is attested in ancient civilizations. In his comedy The Clouds, the Greek playwright Aristophanes (448-380 BC) mentions globules of glass that were known as burning spheres. Several Roman writers (Pliny, Seneca, Plutarch) speak of burning glasses. In particular, Seneca specifies that small and indistinct written characters appear larger and clearer when viewed through a globular glass filled with water. See also → magnifying glass.
sepehr-e âsmân (#), kore-ye ~ (#)
Fr.: sphère céleste
An imaginary sphere, of large but indefinite dimension, used as a basis to define the position coordinates of celestial bodies. The center can be the Earth, the observer, or any other point which plays the role of origin for a given system of coordinates. Seen from the Earth, the celestial sphere rotates around the → celestial axis every 23h 56m 04s (the → sidereal day), as a result of the Earth's rotation. Two important circles on the celestial sphere are the → celestial equator and the → ecliptic. The angle between them, about 23.40 degrees, is known as the → obliquity of the ecliptic. The celestial equator and the ecliptic intersect at two points, → vernal equinox and → autumnal equinox. The positions of the → celestial poles and therefore that of the → celestial equator move gradually on the celestial sphere, due to → precession.
fâmsepehr (#), ranginsepehr (#)
A region of the stellar atmosphere situated above its → photosphere. The Sun's chromosphere extends from the about 500 km above the photosphere basis, up to 9,000 km, where it meets the → corona. For a plane-parallel model, the chromosphere is more or less continuous throughout the first 1,500 km, but breaks into indented spicules beyond that height. The chromosphere temperature grows from 4,400 K at 500 km to almost 6,000 K at 1,000-2,000 km. A rapid growth of coronal temperatures is registered at heights of about 2,500 km (the transition region), the exact height depending on the local magnetic field intensity. Actually, the chromosphere is made of rising and, often, falling jets called → spicules, which go up to 15,000 km. In the uppermost part of the chromosphere the density is the millionth part of its density at the base. Immediately before or after a solar → total eclipse, the chromosphere becomes visible either as a crescent or as a red → diamond ring, due to → H-alpha emission, from which it also gets its name. Moreover, the chromosphere can be seen in → H and K lines of calcium during eclipses, and in ultraviolet emission lines from space. The presence of the chromosphere around cold → dwarf stars is deduced from similar emissions (M.S.: SDE).
sepehr-e pirâkašidé, kore-ye ~, guy-e ~
Fr.: sphère circonscrite
A sphere containing a polyhedron (such as a pyramid) all of whose vertices lie on the surface of the sphere. The polyhedron so contained is said to be inscribed in the sphere.
javv-e donbâledâr, havâsepehr-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère de comète
The envelope of → gas and → dust around a → comet nucleus, also known as → coma. As the comet approaches the → Sun, the frozen materials → sublimate and give rise to an expanding atmosphere. The atmosphere is composed of dust, → molecules, → radicals, and molecular → ions released from the inner coma with velocities ~ 0.5 to 1 km s-1, well above the → escape velocity for the nucleus. The → chemical species observed in cometary spectra can be divided into several categories: (i) atoms and molecules related to → water (H, O, OH, OH+, H2O, H2O+), (ii) carbon and related molecules (C, C+, CO, CO+, CO2+, C2, CH, CH+, HCO, H2CO), (iii) → nitrogen and related molecules (CN, CN+, HCN, CH3CN, NH, NH2, N2+, NH3, NH4), (iv) → sulphur and related molecules (S, CS, S2, H2S+), (v) → metals (Na, K, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, V, Fe, Mn, Ni). For a typical average comet the neutral atmosphere is first seen when the heliocentric distance is d ≤ 3 → astronomical units.
Fr.: sphère de Dyson
A hypothetical structure built around a → star by an advanced → civilization to utilize most or all of the → energy radiated by their star. The idea of such a sphere was first formalized and popularized by theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson in 1960, though it was originally put forward by a 1945 science fiction novel. Dyson assumed that the power needs of → intelligent civilizations never stops increasing. He also proposed that searching for the existence of such structures might lead to the discovery of advanced civilizations elsewhere in the Galaxy. Sometimes referred to as a → Dyson shell or → megastructure.
Freeman John Dyson (1923-). His article, entitled "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation," appeared in the 1960 issue of Science, 131 (3414), 1667-1668; → sphere.
The space around a star in which a planet would experience external conditions that are not incompatible with the existence of life.
The region between the → event horizon and the → stationary limit of a rotating → Kerr black hole. It is possible for a particle falling inside the ergosphere to break into two parts, one of which will fall into the black hole and the other will come out.
Fr.: sphères d'Eudoxe
1) The outermost portion of the Earth's → atmosphere.
Extremely tenuous, it lies above the → ionosphere
from a height of about 500 km, to the edge of
→ interplanetary space.
javv-e âzâd, havâsepehr-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère libre
That part of the atmosphere where the effects of the ground on the → turbulence conditions are negligible.
javv-e xâkestari, havâsepher-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère grise
A simplifying assumption in the models of stellar atmosphere, according to which the absorption coefficient has the same value at all wavelengths.
The vast, three-dimensional region of space around the Sun filled with the → solar wind and the remnant of the → solar magnetic field carried in it. It is bounded by the → heliopause, which is estimated to be 100 → astronomical units or more from the Sun. The radius of the heliosphere is expected to vary with the → solar cycle. The heliosphere may be very elongated owing to the presence of an interstellar wind of neutral hydrogen flowing from the direction of the Galactic center.