havâsepehr-e zabarin, javv-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère supérieure
The general term applied to the atmosphere above the → troposphere.
Fr.: culmination supérieure
Same as → superior culmination.
tarâz-e bâlâ (#), ~ zabarin (#)
Fr.: niveau supérieur
In atomic physics, an initial energy state in an emission transition.
hadd-e bâlâ (#), ~ zabarin (#)
Fr.: limite supérieure
Of an integral operator, the point at which the integration ends.
upper main sequence
rešte-ye farist-e zabarin
Fr.: séquence principale supérieure
A → main sequence star with a mass above 1.5 Msun. Upper main sequence stars have high central temperatures so that they produce their energy through the → CNO cycle. The outward energy flux is very high and therefore this flux cannot be maintained by → radiative transfer. Thus, upper main sequence stars have → convective cores. Outside the core, there is a → radiative zone. The mass of the convective core gradually diminishes as the hydrogen is consumed. The surface hydrogen is fully ionized and the → opacity is due to → electron scattering The opacity due to electron scattering.
Fr.: manteau supérieur
upper mass cut-off
bore-ye bâlâyi-ye jerm, ~ zabarin-e ~
Fr.: coupure aux masses élevées
Same as → upper mass limit.
upper mass limit
hadd-e bâlâyi-ye jerm, ~ zabarin-e ~
Fr.: limite supérieure de masses
The highest mass range admitted in a star formation model. The high mass end of the → initial mass function. The upper mass limit is a critical parameter in understanding → stellar populations, → star formation, and → massive star feedback in galaxies.
gozar-e zabarin (#)
Fr.: passage supérieur
The movement of a celestial body across a celestial meridian's upper branch. Same as → upper culmination.
Fr.: perturbation vectorielle
Vela supernova remnant
bâzmânde-ye abar-now-axtar-e Bâdbân
Fr.: reste de supernova du Voile
A → supernova remnant located in the southern Milky Way in the constellation → Vela. It has a large angular diameter of about 8° and lies 250 ± 30 pc away (Cha et al. 1999, ApJ 515, L25). Its overall emission is dominated by the interaction of the → supernova blast wave with the → interstellar medium. This SNR is also notable for a number of protrusions extending well beyond its rim, which were suggested to be fragments of ejecta from the supernova explosion. X-ray spectroscopy has since confirmed several of these protrusions to indeed be strongly enriched with ejecta. The age of the SNR is estimated to be ~11,000 years, based on the spin-down rate of the associated → Vela pulsar, but ages as large as 20,000-30,000 years have also been argued.
Fr.: dispersion de vitesses
The → standard deviation of a velocity → distribution. It indicates how objects of the sample move relative to one another. Objects with similar velocities have a small velocity dispersion, whereas objects with very different velocities have a large velocity dispersion.
Fr.: période victorienne
A series of 532 years, arising from the cycles of the Sun and Moon multiplied into one another. It was used by the Western churches for many years, in computing the time of Easter, till the → Gregorian calendar was established.
Named after Victorius (a French clergyman), who invented the period about the middle of the 5th century.
Fr.: superamas de la Vierge
The irregular supercluster that contains the Virgo cluster and the Local Group. At least 100 galaxy groups and clusters are located within its diameter of 110 million light-years. It is one of millions of superclusters in the observable Universe.
Fr.: température du viriel
The mean temperature at which a gravitationally → bound system would satisfy the → virial theorem. For a system of mass M and radius R with constant density, the gravitational energy per unit mass is W = GM/R. The kinetic energy per unit mass is E = (3/2)kTvir/μ, where k is → Boltzmann's constant and μ the mean molecular weight. According to the virial theorem, E = W/2, which leads to the virial temperature Tvir = (1/3)(GM/kR).
partow-e X paristandé
Fr.: rayons X persistants
yellow hypergiant (YHG)
Fr.: hypergéante jaune
An evolved, → very massive star of spectral type F or G with a very high luminosity (~105 times solar) lying near the empirical upper luminosity boundary in the → H-R diagram (→ Humphreys-Davidson limit). Yellow hypergiants have high → mass loss rates (10-5-10-3 solar masses per year) and are in a short, transitional evolutionary stage. Their evolutionary state is thought to correspond to post-red supergiants rapidly evolving in blueward loops in the H-R diagram. In their post-RSG blueward evolution these stars enter a temperature range (6000-9000 K), called → yellow void, with increased dynamical instability. Their link to other advanced evolutionary phases of massive stars such as → Luminous Blue Variables and → Wolf-Rayet stars is still an open issue in stellar evolution theory. The most famous yellow hypergiant is → Rho Cassiopeiae.
yellow supergiant (YSG)
abarqul-e zard (#)
Fr.: supergéante jaune
A supergiant star of type F and G whose effective temperature is between 4800 and 7500 K. Yellow supergiants are extremely rare, because they represent a very short-lived phase, typically a few tens of thousands of year, in the evolution of → massive stars.
âzmâyeš-e Young (#)
Fr.: expérience de Young
A method of producing → interference of light. Two beams of → coherent light are produced by passing light through a very small circular aperture in one screen, then through two small circular apertures very close together in a second screen. On a third screen, behind the second screen, there will be two overlapping sets of waves and, if the light is monochromatic, → interference fringes will appear on the third screen. The experiment can also be performed with a beam of electrons or atoms, showing similar interference patterns. Young's experiment provides an evidence of the → wave-particle duality, as explained by → quantum mechanics. Same as → double-slit experiment.
Named after the English scientist Thomas Young (1773-1829), who originally performed the experiment some time around 1801 in an attempt to resolve the question of whether light was composed of particles (the → corpuscular theory of light); or rather consisted of waves travelling through some → ether. The experiment proved the wave nature of light; → experiment.