An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1322

Fr.: contraction   

An act or instance of contracting; the quality or state of being contracted.
gravitational contraction, → Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction, → length contraction, → Lorentz contraction.

Verbal noun of → contract.

pâdguyi (#)

Fr.: contradiction   

1) The act of contradicting; assertion of the contrary or opposite.
2) Logic: A statement that is false under all circumstances.

M.E., from O.Fr. contradiction or directly from L. contradictionem "objection, counterargument," from contradicere, from contra dicere "to speak against," from → contra- "against" + dicere "to speak," akin to Pers. dis, → form.

Pâdguyi, literally "speaking against," from pâd, → counter-, + guyi, from goftan, → logic.

pâdguyâné (#)

Fr.: contradictoire   

Asserting the contrary or opposite; contradicting; inconsistent; logically opposite (

Adjective from → contradiction.


Fr.: contraste   

In an → image, the degree of distinction between areas with different → brightness levels; in other words, the → ratio of the brightness between light and → dark areas.

From Fr. contraster, from It. contrastare "stand out against," from V.L. *contrastare "to withstand," from L. → contra- "against" + stare "to stand," (cf. Pers. istâdan "to stand," O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set," Skt. sthâ- "to stand," Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," PIE base *sta- "to stand").

Pâdsâni, from pâd- "agianst," → contra- + sân "manner, semblance," variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career" + -i noun suffix.

contravariant tensor
  تانسور ِ پادورتا   
tânsor-e pâdvartâ

Fr.: tenseur contravariant   

A tensor whose components are distinguished by → superscript indices.

contra-; + variant; → variance; → tensor.


Fr.: contribuer   

1) To give or supply (help, money, etc.) for a common purpose.
2) To provide (ideas, suggestions, work, etc.) for a common goal, such as an article, a book.

From L. contributus, p.p. of contribuere "to bring together, unite, collect," from → com- + tribuere "to pay, assign, allot," from tribus "tribe."

Hambâžidan, from ham- "together," → com-, + bâž "tribute, toll, impost," → distribute.


Fr.: contribution   

1) The act of contributing.
2) Something contributed.

Verbal noun of → contribute.

  همبز، همبرد   
hambaz, hambord (#)

Fr.: convection   

In general, mass motions within a → fluid resulting in transport and mixing of the properties of that fluid when the temperature gradient exceeds some critical value. Convection, along with → conduction and → radiation, is a principal means of → energy transfer. → Schwarzschild's criterion.

From L. convectionem "the act of carrying," from p.p. stem of convehere "to carry together," from → com- "together" + vehere "to carry," cf. Skt. vah- "to carry, lead," vahitra "vehicle," Av. vazaiti "to lead," Mid.Pers. waz-, wazidan "to carry away," Gk. oxos "chariot;" PIE base *wegh- "to go, carry, drive"

Hambaz, from ham- "together" + baz "to carry, move," → evection.
Hambord, from ham- "together," → com- + bord, from bordan "to carry," Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry," PIE base *bher- "to carry."

convection zone
  زنار ِ همبز   
zonâr-e hambaz

Fr.: zone de convection   

Same as → convective zone.


Fr.: convectif   

Of or relating to → convection.

convective cell
  یاخته‌ی ِ همبزی   
yâxte-y hambazi

Fr.: cellule convective   

A body of → fluid which transports energy through the → convection process.

convective; → cell.

convective cloud
  ابر ِ همبزی   
abr-e hambazi

Fr.: nuage convectif   

Meteorology: A cloud that owes its vertical development, and possibly its origin, to convection.

convective; → cloud.

convective core
  مغزه‌ی ِ همبزی   
maqze-ye hambazi

Fr.: cœur convectif   

The central region of a → massive star where → convection prevails due to steep gradient of temperature relative to pressure.

convective; → core.

convective envelope
  پوشه‌ی ِ همبزی   
puše-ye hambazi

Fr.: enveloppe convective   

1) A → convective zone situated beneath the surface of solar type stars.
2) Stellar models show that → massive stars also possess an outer convective envelope encompassing several percent of the stellar radius. Fast rotation amplifies the size of the convective envelope in → OB stars and developes anisotropic convective envelops (Maeder et al. 2008, A&A 479, L37).

convective; → envelope

convective overshooting
  فرازد ِ همبزی   
farâzad-e hambazi

Fr.: dépassement convectif   

In a → massive star, penetration of the upper layers of the → convective core into the → radiative zone due to → turbulence effects. The enlargement of the convective core results in more luminous stars in theoretical models.

convective; → overshooting.

convective vortex
  گردشار ِ همبزی   
gerdšâr-e hambazi

Fr.: tourbillon convectif   

A common feature of the atmosphere that ranges from small-scale → vortices such as → dust devils, to large-scale systems such as → cyclones.

convective; → vortex.

convective zone
  زنار ِ همبزی   
zonâr-e hambazi

Fr.: zone convective   

A zone inside a star in which → convection takes place; the central → core in → massive stars and the zone underneath → photosphere in low mass stars like the Sun. Recent works predict the presence of a thin convection zone in sufficiently massive main sequence stars which originates from the iron opacity and partial helium ionization. See also → iron convection zone.

convective; → zone.

hamgerâyidan (#)

Fr.: converger   

1) General: To tend to meet in a point; incline toward each other.
2) Math: (of an infinite series) to have a finite sum. (of an improper integral) to have a finite value.

From L.L. convergere "to incline together" from → com- "together" + vergere "to bend."

Hamgerâyidan, from ham- "together," → com- + gerâyidan "to incline toward, verge on; to intend," Mid.Pers. grayidan "to lean, incline; to intend, desire," → diverge.

hamgerâyi (#)

Fr.: convergence   

1) General: Act or state of converging.
2) Math: The property of a → sequence or → series which ensures that it will approach a definite → finite limit. See also: → divergence.

From converg-, from → convergent + -ence, equivalent to → -ance.

Hamgerâyi, verbal noun from hamgerâyidan, → converge.

hamgerâ (#)

Fr.: convergent   

Coming together, as a light beam after passing through a convex lens which brings the beam into the focus.

Verbal ddj. from → converge.

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