An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 11 Search : crater
Barringer Crater
  لاوک ِ برینگر   
lâvak-e Barringer

Fr.: cratère Barringer   

Same as → Meteor Crater.

Names after Daniel Barringer (1860-1929), American geologist, who bought the Crater in 1903, convinced that it was made by a huge → meteorite; → crater.

  ۱، ۲) لاوک، کندال؛ ۳) جام   
1, 2) lâvak, kandâl; 3) Jâm

Fr.: 1, 2) cratère; 3) Coupe   

1) A bowl-like depression on the rigid surface of a planet, satellite, or asteroid usually caused by the high-speed impact of a colliding object.
2) A bowl-shaped cavity at the mouth of a volcano.
3) The Cup. A small → constellation with faint stars, in the Southern Hemisphere, that lies next to → Hydra, at about 11h 20m right ascension, 15° south declination. Abbreviation: Crt; genitive: Crateris.

From Gk. krater "a wide, two-handled bowl for mixing wine with water," from kerannynai "to mix;" PIE base *kere- "to mix, confuse."

Lâvak "a large wooden bowl for kneading dough."
Kandâl "cavity, pit" in Qâeni, from kand- past tense stem of kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan, O.Pers./Av. kan- "to dig," Skt. khan- "to dig") + -al, → -al.
Jâm "cup, chalice, goblet, bowl," Mid.Pers. jâm "vessel, goblet; glass," Av. yama- "glass, glass vessel," yâmô.pacika- "baked glass;" related to Skt. camasa- "a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking Soma, kind of flat dish or cup?"

crater floor
  کف ِ لاوک   
kaff-e lâvak

Fr.: sol de cratère   

The lower part of an → impact crater bounded by the rising → crater rim.

crater; → floor.

crater rim
  لبه‌ی ِ لاوک   
labe-ye lâvak

Fr.: bords de cratère   

That part an → impact crater that extends above the height of the local surface, usually in a circular or elliptical pattern.

crater; → rim.

  لاوک زایی، کندال زایی   
lâvakzâyi, kandâlzâyi

Fr.: cratérisation   

The process by which craters form on the surface of Solar System objects.

From → crater + → -ing

From lâvak or kandâl, → crater, + zâyi from zâ- present tense stem of zâdan "to give birth," Mid.Pers. zâtan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."

  لاوک‌چه، کندال‌چه   
lâvakcé, kandâlcé

Fr.: petit cratère   

A small crater often beside a larger one on the surface of the Moon or solid planets.

From → crater + -let diminutive suffix.

Lâvakcé, kandâlcé from lâvak, kandâl, → crater, + -cé diminutive suffix.

impact crater
  لاوک ِ برخورد   
lâvak-e barxord

Fr.: cratère d'impact   

A depression produced by the collision of a meteorite, asteroid, or comet with the surface of a planet or a satellite. Impact craters are the most characteristic surface features of solar system rigid bodies. They range in size up to hundreds or thousands of kilometers (where the impacts create giant basins as on the Moon, Mars, and Mercury).

impact; → crater.

lunar crater
  لاوک ِ ماه، ~ ِ مانگی، کندال ِ ~   
lâvak-e mâh, ~ mângi, kandâl-e ~

Fr.: cratère lunaire   

A → crater on the surface of the Moon.

lunar; → crater.

Meteor Crater
  لاوک ِ شهاب‌سنگ، کندال ِ ~، ~ آسمان‌سنگ   
lâvak-e šahâbsang, kandâl-e ~, ~ âsmânsang

Fr.: Meteor Crater   

A → meteorite impact crater located about 55 km east of Flagstaff, near Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States. Meteor Crater is about 1,200 m in diameter and some 170 m deep. It is thought to have formed between 20,000 to 50,000 years ago, by the impact of a small → asteroid about 25 m in diameter. Same as → Barringer Crater.

meteor; → crater.

secondary crater
  لاوک ِ دومان، کندال ِ ~   
lâvak-e dovomân, kandâl-e ~

Fr.: cratère secondaire   

A crater formed by the relatively low-velocity impact of fragments ejected from a large primary crater. Secondary craters tend to cluster in a ring around the primary crater.

secondary; → crater.

Yarrabubba crater
  لاوک ِ یارابوبا   
lâvak-e Yarrabubba

Fr.: cratère de Yarrabubba   

A crater about 70 km in diameter in Western Australia, considered to be the oldest recognized → meteorite impact structure on Earth. A precise age of 2 229 ± 5 million years is derived from shocked zircon and monazite crystals in the rocks. The age coincides, within uncertainty, with temporal constraint for the youngest Palaeoproterozoic glacial deposits. Numerical impact simulations indicate that a 70 km size crater created by the impact in a continental glacier could release between 8.7 × 1013 to 5.0 × 1015 kg of H2O vapor instantaneously into the atmosphere. These results provide new estimates of impact-produced H2O vapor abundances for models investigating termination of the Paleoproterozoic glaciations, and highlight the possible role of impact cratering in modifying Earth's → climate (Erikson, T.M. et al., 2020, Nature communications, 21 January).

The Yarrabubba structure is located on the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia (lat. 27° 11'S, long. 118° 50'E), approximately 100 km southeast of the township of Meekatharra; → crater.