An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 38 Search : telescope
align a telescope
  آختیدن ِ دوربین، ~ تلسکوپ   
âxatidan-e durbin, ~ teleskop

Fr.: aligner un télescope   

Setting the axis of a telescope parallel to prime directions. In equatorial mounting, they are made parallel with the Earth's axis of rotation and the equator respectively. → collimation.

align; → telescope.

automatic photometric telescope
  دوربین ِ شیدسنجیک ِ خودکار، تلسکوپ ِ ~ ~   
durbin-e šidsanjik-e xodkâr, teleskop-e ~ ~

Fr.: télescope photométrique automatique   

A telescope developed to perform photometric observations automatically.

automatic; → photometric; → telescope.

balloon-borne telescope
  دوربین ِ بالون-برد، تلسکوپ ~   
durbin-e bâlon-bord, teleskop-e ~

Fr.: télescope porté par ballon   

A remotely guided or automatic telescope carried to high altitudes by a balloon.

balloon astronomy; borne "a past participle of bear," from O.E. beran "bear, bring, wear," from P.Gmc. *beranan (O.H.G. beran, Goth. bairan "to carry"), from PIE root *bher-; "to carry;" compare with Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother," Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry." → telescope.

balloon astronomy. Bord in bâlon-bord "borne, carried," from Mod.Pers. bordan "to bear, carry," as explained above. Durbin, → telescope.

Cassegrain telescope
  دوربین ِ کسگرن، تلسکوپ ~   
durbin Cassegrain, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: Télecope Cassegrain   

A reflecting telescope whose primary mirror has a hole bored through the center to allow the reflected light from the convex secondary mirror be focused beyond the back end of the tube.

Cassegrain, named after the French priest and school teacher Laurent Cassegrain (1629-1693), who invented this system in 1672; → telescope.

Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
  دوربین ِ فضایی ِ پرتوهای ِ گاما فرمی   
Durbin-e fazâyi-ye partowhâ-ye gâmâ Fermi

Fr.: Télescope spatial à rayons gamma Fermi   

A space observatory, formerly named GLAST, devoted to the study of → gamma rays emitted from astrophysical objects. Developed by NASA in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, along with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States, Fermi was launched on June 11, 2008. The main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), is an imaging → camera covering the energy range from about 20 → MeV to more than 300 → GeV. Such gamma rays are emitted only in the most extreme conditions, by particles moving very nearly at the → speed of light. The LAT's → field of view covers about 20% of the sky at any time, and it scans continuously, covering the whole sky every three hours. Another instrument, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has a field of view several times larger than the LAT and provides → spectral coverage of → gamma-ray burst that extends from the lower limit of the LAT down to 10 → keV.

Fermi; → gamma ray; → space; → telescope.

Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST)
     
FAST

Fr.: FAST   

The 500 m diameter → radio telescope which is the largest → single-dish antenna in the world. It is an Arecibo type telescope nestled within a natural basin in China's remote and mountainous Dawodang, Kedu Town, in southeastern China's Guizhou Province. The → reflector consists of 4,450 triangular panels, each with a side length of 11 m. More than 2,000 → actuators are used, according to the feedback from the measuring system, to deform the whole reflector surface and directly correct for → spherical aberration. Several detectors are used to cover a frequency range of 70 MHz to 3 GHz.

five; → hundred; → meter; → aperture; → spherical; → radio; → telescope.

grazing-incidence telescope
  تلسکوپ با فتاد ِ برمژنده   
teleskop bâ fotâd-e barmažandé

Fr.: télescope à incidence rasante   

A telescope design used for focusing → extreme ultraviolet, → X-rays, and → gamma rays. Such short wavelengths do not reflect in the same manner as at the large incidence angles employed in optical and radio telescopes. Instead, they are mostly absorbed. To bring X-rays to a → focus, one has to use a different approach from → Cassegrain or other typical → reflecting telescopes. In a grazing-incidence telescope, incoming light is almost → parallel to the → mirror surface and strikes the mirror → surface at a very → shallow angle. Much like skipping a stone on the water by throwing it at a low angle to the surface, X-rays may be → deflected by mirrors arranged at low incidence angles to the incoming energy. Several designs of grazing-incidence mirrors have been used in various → X-ray telescopes, including → plane mirrors or combinations of → parabolic and → hyperbolic surfaces. To increase the collecting area a number of mirror elements are often nested inside one another. For example, the → Chandra X-ray Observatory uses two sets of four nested grazing-incidence mirrors to bring X-ray photons to focus onto two → detector instruments. → Bragg's law; → X-ray astronomy.

grazing incidence; → telescope.

Gregorian telescope
  دوربین ِ گرگوری، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Gregori, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope de Gregory   

A reflecting telescope in which the light rays are reflected from the primary mirror to a concave secondary mirror, from which the light is reflected back to the primary mirror and through the central hole behind the primary mirror. Compare with the → Cassegrain telescope, in which the secondary mirror is convex.

Named after the Scottish mathematician and astronomer James Gregory (1638-1675), who devised the telescope, but did not succeed in constructing it; → telescope.

guiding telescope
  دوربین ِ راهبرد   
durbin-e râhbord

Fr.: lunette de guidage   

A telescope which is attached to a second telescope being used for photographic purposes. The guiding telescope, mounted parallel to the optical axis of the main telescope, is used by the observer to keep the image of a celestial body motionless on a photographic plate.

guiding; → telescope.

Herschelian telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ هرشل، دوربین ~   
teleskop-e Herschel, durbin-e ~

Fr.: télescope de Herschel   

A → reflecting telescope in which the → primary mirror is tilted so that light is focused near one side of the open end of the tube. The → eyepiece then picks up this light directly, avoiding light loss from reflection by a → secondary mirror. The drawback is → astigmatism, unless the → focal ratio is large. Herschel used this design in his giant 48-inch instrument.

Herschel; → telescope.

Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
  دوربین ِ فضایی ِ هابل، تلسکوپ ِ ~ ~   
durbin-e fazâyi-ye Hubble, teleskop-e ~ ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope spatial de Hubble   

A telescope of 2.4 m in diameter, a joint NASA and ESA project, launched in 1990 into a low-Earth orbit 600 km above the ground. It was equipped with a collection of several science instruments that worked across the entire optical spectrum (from infrared, through the visible, to ultraviolet light). During its lifetime Hubble has become one of the most important science projects ever.

Hubble; → space; → telescope.

infrared telescope
  دوربین ِ فروسرخ، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e forusorx (#), teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope infrarouge   

A telescope capable of observing → infrared radiation from astronomical objects.

infrared; → telescope.

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
  دوربین ِ فضایی ِ جیمز وب، تلسکوپ ~ ~ ~   
durbin-e fazâyi-ye James Webb, teleskop ~ ~ ~

Fr.: Télescope spatial James Webb   

A large, infrared space telescope with a mirror 6.55 m in diameter, scheduled for launch in 2018. JWST's instruments will work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range (0.6 to 28 μm). The scheduled instruments are Near IR Camera (NIRCam, field of 2.2 x 4.4 arcmin, wavelength range 0.6-5 μm), Near IR Spectrograph (NIRSpec, 3.5 x 3.5 arcmin, 0.6-5 μm, resolving powers of ~ 100, ~1000, and ~3000), Mid IR Instrument (MIRI, 1.4 x 1.9 arcmin, 5-27 μm, R ~ 3000), and Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS, 2.3 x 2.3 arcmin, 0.6-5 μm, R ~ 100). The successor to the → Hubble Space Telescope will be placed in an orbit about 1.5 million km from the Earth, at the → Lagrangian point L2. The JWST project is a → NASA-led international collaboration with the → European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. The scientific goals of JWST can be grouped under four broad topics: first light after the Big Bang; galaxy formation; birth of stars and protoplanetary systems; and planetary systems and the origins of life.

Named in honor of James E. Webb (1906-1992), who headed NASA from 1961 to 1968, overseeing all the manned launches in the Mercury through Gemini programs, until before the first manned Apollo flight; → space; → telescope.

Keplerian telescope
  دوربین ِ کپلر، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Kepler, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope de Kepler   

A → refracting telescope which has simple → convex lenses for both → objective and → eyepiece. It suffers from → chromatic aberration, which can be reduced by increasing the → focal ratio. It was first devised by Kepler in 1615.

Keplerian; → telescope.

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)
  تلسکوپ ِ بزرگ ِ هنوینی برای ِ بردید   
teleskop-e bozorg-e hanvini barâye bardid

Fr.: Grand Télescope d'étude synoptique   

A new kind of optical telescope with a 6.7-m diameter → primary mirror, currently under construction in Chile. It will have a large → field of view almost 10 square degrees of sky, or 40 times the size of the full moon. The LSST will move quickly between images to rapidly → survey the sky. From its mountain top site in the Andes (Cerro Pachon, a 2,682-m high mountain in Coquimbo Region), the LSST will take more than 800 panoramic images each night with its 3.2 billion-pixel camera, recording the entire visible sky twice each week. Each patch of sky it images will be visited 1000 times during the survey, each of its 30-second observations will be able to detect objects 10 million times fainter than visible with the human eye. The LSST's combination of telescope, mirror, camera, → data processing, and survey will capture changes in billions of faint objects. Hence, the data it provides will be used to create an animated, three-dimensional cosmic map with unprecedented depth and detail. This map will serve many purposes, from locating the → dark matter and characterizing the properties of the → dark energy, to tracking transient objects, to studying our own Milky Way Galaxy in depth. It will even be used to detect and track → potentially hazardous asteroids that might impact the Earth.

large; → synoptic; → survey; → telescope.

Maksutov telescope
  دوربین ِ ماکسوتوف، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Maksutof, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope de Maksutov   

A → reflecting telescope incorporating a deeply curved → meniscus, → lens, which corrects the → optical aberrations of the spherical → primary mirror to give high-quality → images over a wide → field of view.

Named for the Russian optical specialist Dmitri Maksutov (1896-1964), who developed the design; → telescope.

Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST)
  بایگانی ِ میکالسکی برای ِ تلسکوپهای ِ فضایی   
Bâygâni-ye Mikulski barâye teleskophâ-ye fazâyi

Fr.: Archive Mikulski pour télescopes spatiaux   

A → NASA funded project to support and provide to the astronomical community a variety of astronomical data archives, with the primary focus on scientifically related data sets in the optical, ultraviolet, and near-infrared parts of the spectrum. MAST is a huge database that contains astronomical observations of stars, planets and galaxies from 16 separate NASA space science missions, including the Hubble Space Telescope. It is located at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI).

In honor of senator Barbara A. Mikulski for her active support for science, NASA, and the astrophysics community; → archive; → space; → telescope.

MOST Space Telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ فضایی ِ MOST   
teleskop-e fazâyi-ye MOST

Fr.: télescope spatial MOST   

A small telescope dedicated entirely to → asterolseismology. MOST is the first space telescope entirely designed and constructed by Canada. It was launched into space in 2003. The satellite weighs only 54 kg and is equipped with an ultra high precision telescope that measures only 15 centimetres in diameter. Despite its tiny size, it is ten times more sensitive than the → Hubble Space Telescope in detecting the minuscule variations in a star's luminosity caused by vibrations that shake its surface. MOST completes one orbit around the Earth every 101 minutes by passing over each of Earth's poles.

MOST, short for Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope.

muon telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ موءونی   
teleskop-e muoni

Fr.: télescope muonique   

An → instrument used in → geophysics to determine the average → density of geological bodies by measuring the → attenuation produced by → rocks on the flux of → atmospheric muons. This density muon → radiography is or example used to study the physical conditions inside → volcanoes.

muon; → telescope.

Newtonian telescope
  دوربین ِ نیوتن، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Newton, teleskop-e ~

Fr.: télescope de Newton, ~ newtonien   

A telescope with a concave paraboloidal objective mirror and a small plane mirror that reflects rays from the primary mirror laterally outside the tube where the image is viewed with an eyepiece.

Newtonian; → telescope.

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