An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 5 Search : ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)
  سازمان ِ فضایی ِ اروپا   
Sâzmân-e Fazâyi-ye Orupâ

Fr.: Agence spatiale européenne   

An intergovernmental organisation dedicated to space research and technology as well as peaceful exploration of space, founded in 1975. It is headquartered in Paris and currently comprises 18 member states and one associated state (Canada). ESA has developed the Ariane series of space launch vehicles, and supports a launch facility in French Guiana. Moreover, ESA has four major research centers: The European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), located in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, is the primary research center and manages the satellite projects. The European Space Operations Center (ESOC), situated in Darmstadt, Germany, is responsible for satellite control, monitoring, and data retrieval. The European Space Research Institute (ESRIN), located in Frascati, Italy, supports the ESA documentation service and manages the data obtained from remote sensing satellites. The European Astronaut Center (EAC), located in Cologne, Germany, is responsible for the selection and training of astronauts for space station missions. The European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), located in Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid, Spain, which holds scientific operations centres as well as archives. Some of the past ESA missions are the following ones. The Giotto space probe, which enabled examination of the core of → Halley's Comet in 1986. ESA also developed the Ulysses spacecraft (launched 1990) to explore the Sun's polar regions. Similarly, ESA established a system of meteorological satellites known as Meteosat. In 2003 ESA launched the Mars Express orbiter and its lander, Beagle 2. In 2009 ESA launched → Planck Satellite, that is designed to study the → cosmic microwave background, and the → Herschel Satellite, an infrared observatory that is the largest telescope in space.

European; → space; agency, from M.L. agentia, from L. ag-, root of agere, → act + -entia noun suffix.

Sâzmân, → organization; fazâyi adj. of fazâ, → space; Orupâ, → Europa.

Lesath (Upsilon Scorpii)

Fr.: Lesath   

A bright blue star of → apparent visual magnitudeV = 2.70, that with → Shaula (Lambda Scorpii) makes up the Scorpion's stinger. Among its other designations: HR 6508 and HIP 85696. Lesath is 580 → light-years away. Lesath and Shaula appear very close on the sky (less than a degree apart), but they are not physically related. Lesath is a → subgiant of → spectral type B2 IV with a → luminosity of about 7,380 Msun. It has a radius of about 6 Rsun, and a → surface temperature of about 22,000 K.

Lesath, from Ar. al-Las'ah (اللسعه) "the sting."

Mesarthim (γ Arietis)

Fr.: Mésarthim   

A star of visual magnitude 4.8 lying 204 light-years away in the constellation → Aries. It is in fact a triple star system.

The origin of Mesarthim (or Mesartim) is a matter of controversy. Some scholars have related it to the Ar. methartim (مثرطم) "very fat (animal)," but the connection is not obvious although the words are apparently similar. The original Ar. name was Šaratayn (الشرطین) "the two marks" denoting the current β and γ stars in Aries. It was also the name of the lunar mansion of which these two stars were members. Johann Bayer (1572-1625) erroneously related Šaratayn to the Hebrew Sartai, a current term in the astrological literature of his time. Subsequently, others figured that Sartai was related to Hebrew Mesartim "servants." The Latin transliteration and alteration Mesarthim found much success in establishing itself as the proper name for star γ Arietis.

Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)

Fr.: MESA   

An open-source, one-dimensional astrophysical code which is capable of calculating the evolution of stars in a wide range of environments. It works according to the → Henyey method and uses many modules that deal with various aspects of the theoretical models, such as the → equation of state (EOS), → nuclear reaction networks, → chemical composition, micro-physics, or macro-physics. The EOS and corresponding opacities or nuclear networks are provided in tabulated formats and can be selected by the user, while the micro-physics and macro-physics can be controlled by inlists of relevant parameters and settings (Paxton et al. 2015, ApJS 220, 15 and references therein).

module; → experiment; → stellar; → astrophysics.


Fr.: thésaurus   

1) A controlled and structured list of terms or descriptors usually with a cross-reference system used in subject analysis and information retrieval in a particular field.
2) More generally, a work that lists words arranged and grouped according to their semantic similarities, including synonyms and sometimes antonyms. This is different from the dictionary, which contains definitions and pronunciations. The first major work of this kind in English is Peter Mark Roget's Thesaurus of English words and phrases, Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas (1852).

From L. thesaurus "treasury, treasure," from Gk.  thesauros  "treasure, treasury, storehouse," from root of  tithenai "to put, to place," → thesis.

Vâžganj, from vâž, → word, + ganj "treasure," from Mid.Pers. ganj "treasure."