Fr.: électron d'Auger
An electron that is emitted when an electron from a higher → energy level falls into a → vacancy in an inner shell, according to the → Auger-Meitner effect. The process usually occurs when the atom is bombarded with high energy electrons. If the collision ejects an inner-shell electron, an electron from a higher level will quickly drop to this lower level to fill the vacancy. Most of the time, the energy is released in the form of a photon. But sometimes the energy is transferred to another electron, which is ejected from the atom.
→ Auger-Meitner effect; → electron.
Fr.: électron de conduction
An electron whose energy lies in the conduction band of a solid, where it is free to move under the influence of an electron field.
→ conduction; → electron.
The → elementary particle that possesses the smallest possible negative → electric charge. This structureless particle has an intrinsic → spin (1/2), a mass of 9.109 382 91 (40) x 10-31 kg, and an electric charge of 1.602 176 565(35) × 10-19 → coulombs, or 4.803 204 51(10) × 10-10 → esu.
Term first suggested in 1891 by Irish physicist G. J. Stoney (1826-1911); from electr-, from → electric + -on, a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles, probably extracted from → ion.
Fr.: affinité électronique
The amount of energy released or absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Fr.: capture d'électron
A process whereby an → unstable atom becomes stable. In this process, an → electron in an atom's inner shell is drawn into the → nucleus where it combines with a → proton, forming a → neutron and a → neutrino. The neutrino escapes from the atom's nucleus. The result is an element change, because the atom loses a proton. For example, an atom of → carbon (with 6 protons) becomes an atom of → boron (with 5 protons). Electron capture is also called K-capture since the captured electron usually comes from the atom's K-shell. See also → neutronization.
bâr-e elektron (#)
Fr.: charge de l'électron
The charge of one electron, e = -1.602 176 × 10-19→ coulombs or -4.803 204 51 × 10-10→ statcoulombs.
Fr.: configuration électronique
Of an atom, a form of notation which shows how the electrons are distributed among the various atomic orbital and energy levels. The format consists of a series of numbers, letters and superscripts. For example, 1s2 2s2 2p3 means: 2 electrons in the 1s subshell, 2 electrons in the 2s subshell, and 3 electrons in the 2p subshell.
→ electron; → configuration.
vâgeni-ye elektron (#)
Fr.: dégénérescence des électrons
A → degenerate matter in which electrons are very tightly packed together, as in a white dwarf, but cannot get closer than a certain limit to each other, because according to quantum mechanics laws (→ Pauli exclusion principle) the lowest energy levels can be occupied by only one electron. Therefore, electrons are forced into high energy states. And the significant pressure created by these high energy electrons supports white dwarf stars against their own gravity.
→ electron; → degeneracy.
cagâli-ye elektroni (#)
Fr.: densité électronique
The number of electrons per unit volume in an ionized medium, like an → H II region, as determined from → emission lines.
parâš-e elekroni (#)
Fr.: diffraction des électrons
A diffraction phenomenon resulting from the passage of electrons through matter, analogous to the diffraction of visible light. This phenomenon is the main evidence for the existence of waves associated with elementary particles; → de Broglie wavelength.
→ electron; → diffraction.
jerm-e elekron (#)
Fr.: masse de l'électron
The mass of an electron, which is 9.109 382 91 × 10-28 g.
Fr.: rayon de l'électron
The classical size of the electron given by re = e2/mec2 = 2.81794 × 10-13 cm, where e and me are the → electron charge and → electron mass, respectively, and c is the → speed of light.
puste-ye elekroni (#)
Fr.: couche éléctronique
Any of up to seven energy levels on which an electron may exist within an atom, the energies of the electrons on the same level being equal and on different levels being unequal. The number of electrons permitted in a shell is equal to 2n2. A shell contains n2 orbitals, and n subshells.
damâ-ye elektroni (#)
Fr.: température électronique
1) The temperature of electrons in an interstellar ionized nebula (e.g. in
→ H II regions and
→ planetary nebulae) as determined by characteristic
→ emission lines (optical
→ forbidden lines or
→ radio recombination lines).
→ electron; → temperature.
electron volt (eV)
joft-e elektron-pozitron (#)
Fr.: paire électron-positron
The simultaneous formation of an → electron and a → positron in the → pair production process.
bâl-e parâkaneš-e elektron
A → line broadening phenomenon involving the scattering effect of → free electrons on the → radiation transfer in → stellar atmospheres. The scattering of radiation by free electrons plays an important role in the atmospheres of → hot stars, such as → O-types, early → B-types, and → Wolf-Rayet stars. The first detailed study of electron scattering in Wolf-Rayet stars was by Castor et al. (1970), who used electron scattering to explain the broad emission wings of N IV λ3483 in HD 192163. In → P Cygni stars the explanation of the very extended (almost symmetric) wings on the → Balmer lines as caused by electron scattering was first made by Bernat & Lambert (1978). Hillier (1991) showed that significant reduction in the strength of an electron-scattering wing can be achieved in a model of → clumped wind for a lower mean → mass loss rate. This resulted in a better agreement between observations and theoretical predictions. Electron-scattering wings provide diagnostics regarding the presence of density inhomogeneities in → stellar winds (Münch, 1948, ApJ 108, 116; Hillier, 1991, A&A 247, 455).
→ electron; → scattering; → wing.
The energy acquired by an electron when accelerated through a → potential difference of 1 volt (1 eV = 1.602 × 10-12 → ergs = 11605 → kelvins).
1) elektroni (#); 2) elektronik (#)
1) Of or relating to electrons or to an electron.
Fr.: état éléctronique
In molecular quantum mechanics, any of → quantum states corresponding to a particular → electron configuration (i.e. an arrangement of the electron(s) in certain → orbitals). The electron configuration with the lowest energy is called the → ground state. All higher energy states are called → excited states.
→ electronic; → state.