Greek numeral system râžmân-e adadhâ-ye Yunâni Fr.: numération grecque A → numeral system in which letters represent numbers. In an earlier system, called acrophonic, the symbols for numerals came from the first letter of the number name. Subsequently, the numerals were based on giving values to the letters of alphabet. For example α, β, γ, and δ represented 1, 2, 3, and 4; while ι, κ, λ, and μ stood for 10, 20, 30, and 40, and ρ, σ, τ, and υ for 100, 200, 300, and 400. The Greek also used the additive principle. For example 11, 12, 13, 14, and 374 were written ια, ιβ, ιγ, ιδ, and τοδ. The numbers between 1000 and 9000 were expressed by adding a subscript or superscript ι (iota) to the symbols for 1 to 9. For example ιA and ιΘ for 1000 and 9000. Numbers greater than 9999 were expressed using M, which was the myriad, 10,000. Therefore, since 123 was represented by ρκγ, 123,000 was written as M^{ρκγ}. |
Hindu-Arabic numeral system râžmân-e adadhâ-ye Hendi-Arabi Fr.: numération indo-arabe Same as → Indian numeral system. |
Indian numeral system râžmân-e adahâ-ye Hendi Fr.: numération indienne The → numeral system consisting of the numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 which evolved into the system we use today. The Indian numerals was a place-value or positional system. The Indians were the first to develop a base 10 positional system. Same as → Hindu-Arabic numeral system. |
numeral system râžmân-e adadi, é adadhâ Fr.: système de numération A set of → symbols and → rules for representing → numbers. Same as → number system. See also: → Greek numeral system, → Roman numeral system, → Indian numeral system. |
Roman numeral system râžmân-e adadhâ-ye Rumi Fr.: numération romaine A → number system in which letters represent numbers, still used occasionally today. The cardinal numbers are expressed by the following seven letters: I (1), V (5), X (10), L (50), C (100), D (500), and M (1,000). If a numeral with smaller value is written on right of greater value then smaller value is added to the greater one. If it is preceded by one of lower value, the smaller numeral is subtracted from the greater. Thus VI = 6 (V + I), but IV = 4 (V - I). Other examples are XC (90), CL (150), XXII (22), XCVII (97), CCCXCV (395). If symbol is repeated then its value is added. The symbols I, X, C and M can be repeated maximum 3 times. A dash line over a numeral multiplies the value by 1,000. For example V^{-} = 5000, X^{-} = 10,000, C^{-} = 100,000, and DLIX^{-} = 559,000. |