An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 20 Search : bias
  ۱) ورک؛ ۲) پیش-تنش؛ ۳) ورک دادن   
1) varak; 2) pištaneš; 3) varak dâdan

Fr.: 1, 2) biais; 3) biaiser   

1) General: Leaning of the mind toward or away from something; especially: a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment.
Statistics: A → systematic error introduced by selecting items from a wrong population, favoring some of the elements of a population, or poorly phrasing questions.
2) Electronics: A → voltage applied to a device to establish a reference level for operation. Same as initial voltage, initial tension (Ger. die Vorspannung). In a → CCD detector, electronic → offset which prevents negative signal.
3a) General: To give a settled and often prejudiced outlook to.
3b) Electronics: To apply a small voltage to a device to control its operation. See also: → bias error, → bias frame, → bias offset, → bias voltage, → biased, → biased estimate, → biased galaxy formation, → biased sample, → biased statistics, → debias, → kinematic bias, → Lutz-Kelker bias, → Malmquist bias, → observational bias, → sampling bias, → unbiased, → unbiased estimator.

From M.Fr. biais "slant," perhaps ultimately from Gk. epikarsios "slanting, oblique," from epi- "upon" + karsios "oblique."

Varak, from var "side, direction" + -ak suffix denoting relation, affinity, similarity (as in dastak, poštak, pašmak, xarak, nâxonak, mušak, eynak). Note also var in yekvar "slanting, inclined".
Pištaneš, only in the electronic sense, from piš, → pre- + taneš, → tension.
Varak dâdan, from varak + dâdan "to give," → datum.

bias error
  ایرنگ ِ ورک، خطای ~   
irang-e varak, xatâ-ye ~

Fr.: erreur de biais   

A measurement error that remains constant in magnitude for all observations; for example an incorrectly set zero adjustment.

bias; → error.

bias frame
  نورداد برای ِ ورک   
nurdâd barây-e varak

Fr.: pose pour biais   

CCD frame with exposure time set to zero and giving the bias level.

bias; → frame.

Nurdâd, → exposure; varakbias

bias offset
  اپنه ِ ورک   
apneh-e varak

Fr.: biais   

In → CCD detectors, same as → bias and → offset.

bias; → offset.

bias voltage
  ولتاژ ِ ورک   
voltâž-e varak

Fr.: voltage de biais   

A voltage applied or developed between two electrodes as a bias.

bias; → voltage.


Fr.: biaisé   

Marked by or exhibiting bias; characterized by settled and often prejudiced outlook.

Biased, from → bias + adj. suffix -ed.

Varakdâr, from varak, → bias + -dâr "possessing, having," from dâštan "to possess, to have."

biased estimate
  بر‌آورد ِ ورکدار   
barâvard-e varakdâr

Fr.: estimation biasiée   

Of a population parameter, if the mean or expectation of the statistics is not equal to the parameter.

biased; → estimate.

barâvard, → estimate; varakdârbiased.

biased galaxy formation
  دیسش ِ ورکدار ِ کهکشانها   
diseš-e varakdâr-e kahkašânhâ

Fr.: formation biaisée de galaxies   

The theory that bright galaxies form preferentially from anomalously overdense perturbations in the → early Universe.

biased; → galaxy; → formation.

biased sample
  نمونان ِ ورکدار   
nemunân-e varakdâr

Fr.: échantillon biaisé   

A sample that is not a true representative of a → statistical population to which generalizations are to be made. A sample which is not → randomly constituted.

biased; → sample.

biased statistics
  آمار ِ ورکدار   
âmâr-e varakdâr

Fr.: statistique biasée   

A statistics based on a → biased sample.

biased; → statistics.

  ورک زدودن   
varak zodudan

Fr.: soustraire le biais   

To substract the → bias from a flat-field or science frame obtained using an electronic detector.

Debias, from → de- + → bias.

Varak zodudan, from varakbias + zodudan "to polish, clean," Mid.Pers. uzdātan, Av. uzdā-, from uz-, → ex-, + dā- "make, create."

  ورک زدایی   
varak zodâyi

Fr.: soustraction du biais   

The process of removing the → bias from a → flat-field or science → frame. → debias

Verbal noun of → debias.

kinematic bias
  ورک ِ جنبشی   
varak-e jonbeši

Fr.: biais cinématique   

A systematic error introduced in a sample of stellar → proper motion data by higher velocity stars that are easier to measure.

kinematic; → bias.

Lutz-Kelker bias
  ورک ِ لوتز-کلکر   
varak-e Lutz-Kelker

Fr.: biais de Lutz-Kelker   

A systematic error that can be introduced when → trigonometric parallaxes are used to calibrate a luminosity system. The bias arises when stars are selected by a lower limit in the observed parallax values. This favors the stars for which the measured parallax result is relatively too large.

Named after Th. Lutz & D.H. E. Kelker, 1973, PASP 85, 573; → bias.

Malmquist bias
  ورک ِ مالمکوییست   
varak-e Malmquist

Fr.: biais de Malmquist   

A selection effect in observational astronomy. If a sample of objects (galaxies, quasars, stars, etc.) is flux-limited, then the observer will see an increase in average luminosity with distance, because the less luminous sources at large distances will not be detected.

Named after the Swedish astronomer Gunnar Malmquist (1893-1982); → bias.

observational bias
  وَرک ِ نپاهشی   
varak-e nepâheši

Fr.: biais observationnel   

An error in observation arising from systematically favoring brighter or weaker objects or some particular object morphologies; e.g. → Malmquist bias.

observational; → bias.

sampling bias
  ورک ِ نمونان‌گیری   
varak-e nemunân-giri

Fr.: biais de l'échantillonnage   

That part of the difference between the expected value of the sample estimator and the true value of the characteristic which results from the sampling procedure, the estimating procedure, or their combination.

sampling; → bias.


Fr.: non biaisé   

Not biased or prejudiced.
Statistics: With an expected value that is equal to the parameter being estimated.

un- + → biased.

Bi- "without" + varak, → bias.

unbiased estimator
  بر‌آور ِ بی‌وَرَک   
barâvar-e bi-varak

Fr.: estimateur non biaisé   

A sample statistics when the mean of the sampling distribution of that statistic can be shown to be equal to the parameter being estimated.

unbiased; → estimator.

unbiased sample
  نمونان ِ بی‌وَرَک   
nemunân-e a bi-varak

Fr.: échantillon non biaisé   

A sample in which every individual element in the population has an equal chance of being selected.

unbiased; → sample.