A → European Space Agency (ESA) program to investigate the Martian environment and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future Mars sample return mission in the 2020's. Two missions are foreseen: one consisting of an Orbiter plus an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), launched in 2016, and the other, featuring a rover, with a launch date of 2018. Both missions will be carried out in cooperation with Russia's Roscosmos space agency. The ExoMars program will demonstrate a number of essential flight and in-situ enabling technologies that are necessary for future exploration missions, such as an international Mars Sample Return mission. At the same time, a number of important scientific investigations will be carried out. The 2016 mission included a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDM. The Orbiter will carry scientific instruments to detect and study atmospheric trace gases, such as methane. The EDM will contain sensors to evaluate the lander's performance as it descends, and additional sensors to study the environment at the landing site. The 2018 mission includes a rover that will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research.
Foucault's Marseille reflector
bâztâbgar-e Foucault-ye Marseille
Fr.: réflecteur marseillais de Foucault
The first functioning → reflecting telescope with a silvered glass mirror. It was built by Léon Foucault in 1826 for the Marseille Observatory. The mirror of 80-cm in diameter (f/d = 5) had an excellent quality. The telescope was used for a century as a visual instrument. Edouard Stéphan (1837-1923) used it from 1871 to 1884 to find 800 high-brightness galaxies, among which the → Stephan's Quintet. From 1906 to 1962 the telescope was used by Robert Jonckheere (1888-1927) to discover 3,350 new binary stars. In 1873, following an idea of Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896), Stéphan attempted to use it as an → interferometer to measure the diameter of a number of stars. In 1914 Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Henri Buisson (1873-1944) used the telescope to obtain the first astronomical Fabry-Pérot interferogram, on the → Orion Nebula.
After the French physicist and optician Léon Foucault (1819-1868); Marseille (Observatory), the second largest city of France, located on the south east coast of the Mediterranean Sea, from L. Massalia, from Gk. Massalia; → reflector.
Fourth planet from Sun and the seventh largest. Mass 6.42 × 1026 g (0.11 Earth's); radius 3397 km. Mean distance from Sun 1.52 A.U.. Sidereal period 687 days; synodic period 779.9 days. Surface temperature 248 K., rotational period 24h37m22s.6. Obliquity 23°59'. Atmosphere more than 90% CO2, traces of O2, CO, H2O. Two tiny satellites (Phobos and Deimos), both of which are locked in synchronous rotation with Mars.
Late M.E., from L. Mars the Roman god of war, Ares in Gk. mythology.
Bahrâm, from Mid.Pers. Vahrâm, from Vahrân "god of victory," from Av. vərəθraγna- "victory, breaking the defence, the god of victory." The first element vərəθra- "shield, defensive power," cf. Skt. vrtrá- "defence, name of a demon slain by Indra," Arm. vahagan name of a god (loanword from Iranian). The second element γna-, from Av., also O.Pers., jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Mod.Pers. zadan, zan- "to strike, beat;" Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike," phonos "murder;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."
The → zero point of elevation on Mars. It is the elevation at which the atmosphere pressure is 6.1 millibars, or 610 → Pascals. Atmosphere pressure has to be used because Mars has no ocean, and "sea level" cannot be used like on Earth. More formally, the datum is a fourth-order, fourth-degree surface of equal → gravitational potential (determined from the Viking orbiter spacecraft) such that the pressure of the atmosphere is 6.1 millibars (source: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA).
Fr.: trojan de Mars