An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 135 Search : all
2 Pallas
  ۲ پالاس   
2 Pâllâs (#)

Fr.: 2 Pallas   

The largest → asteroid and the second to be discovered, by Heinrich Olbers in 1802. Before the reclassification of → Ceres, Pallas was the second largest asteroid. Pallas is slightly irregular in shape with dimensions 570 x 525 x 482 km. It appears to have the same composition as → meteorites classed as low-grade → carbonaceous chondrites. Its → rotation period is 9 to 12 hours, and its → semi-major axis 2.773 → astronomical unints.

In Gk. mythology, Pallas was one of the Titans. The winged husband of Styx, he is the father of Nike and maybe Eos. Some legends claim that he is the father of Athena, possibly because of her nickname Pallas-Athena.

all
  همه   
hamé (#)

Fr.: tout, tous   

The whole quantity or amount.

M.E. al, plural alle; O.E. eall "all, every, entire;" cf. O.Fris., O.H.G. al, O.N. allr, Goth. alls.

Hamé- "all," variant hami "all the time, always;" Mid.Pers. hamâg "all," hamê "all the time, always;" Av. hama- "any;" cf. Skt. sama-"any, every, whichever;" Gk. amo-then "whichever;" Goth. sums "any;" O.N. sumr "any;" O.E. sum "some;" E. some.

all-sky survey
  بردید ِ همه-آسمان   
bardid-e hame-âsmân

Fr.: relevé sur tout le ciel   

A → survey that collects data on the whole sky. For example the infrared → Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the X-ray → ROSAT All-Sky Survey.

all; → sky; → survey.

alliance
  همدستی   
hamdasti (#)

Fr.: alliance   

1) The act of allying or state of being allied; the result of this action.
2) A union to advance the common interests of the members.

M.E., from O.Fr. aliance, from al(ier) "to ally," → alloy, + → -ance.

Hamdasti, literally "joining hand," from ham-, → com-, + dast, → hand, + -i noun suffix.

allocate
  تسکیدن   
teskidan

Fr.: allouer   

1) General: To assign or allot for a particular purpose.
2) Computers: To assign an amount of resource (disk, memory, CPU time, etc.) to a defined user.

From M.L. allocate imperative plural of allocare "allocate," from → ad- "to" + locare "to place," from locus "a place."

Teskidan, from tesk "portion, share, part, lot; a tax upon lands, tribute extracted," variants tešk, toxs (kardan) "distribute, divide;" loaned in Ar. tisq, tasq; tasu "a weight of four barley corns; the twenty-forth part of a weight;" Mid.Pers. tasû "the fourth part," loaned in Ar. tassûj, in Syriac tassûgâ "the fourth part; a measure;" ultimately Proto-Ir. *caçû-ka-; cf. Av. caθwarô, catur-, → four.

allocation
  تسک   
tesk

Fr.: allocation   

The act of allocating; the state of being allocated.

Verbal noun of → allocate.

allotrope
  دگروار   
degarvâr (#)

Fr.: allotrope   

One of two or more forms in which a → chemical element occurs, each differing in physical properties; e.g. → diamond and → graphite are allotropes of → carbon.

From allo-, combining form of Gk. allos "other, different;" cf. L. alius "else;" → alias + trope, from Gk. -tropos "a turn, way, manner," from tropein "to turn;" PIE base *trep- "to turn" (cf. L. trepit "he turns").

Degarvâr, from degar "other, another" (Mid.Pers. dit, ditikar "the other, the second;" O.Pers. duvitiya- "second;" Av. daibitya-, bitya- "second;" Skt. dvitiya- "second;" PIE *duitiio- "second") + -vâr denoting "resembling, like;" Mid.Pers. -wâr; Av. -vara, -var; cf. Skt. -vara.

allotropy
  دگروارگی   
degarvâregi (#)

Fr.: allotropie   

A property of certain → chemical elements, as → carbon, → sulfur, and → phosphorus of existing in two or more distinct forms, known as → allotropes.

allotrope.

allowed band
  باند ِ پرزامیده   
bând-e parzâmidé

Fr.: bande permise   

In solid-state physics, the range of energies which electrons can attain in a material.

P.p. of v. allow, from O.Fr. alouer "approve," from L. allaudare , compound of → ad- "to" + laudare "to praise."

Bând, → band; parzâmidé, p.p. of parzâmidan "to send through, permit, allow," from parzâm "permission," from par- "through" + zâm stem of zâmidan, Mid.Pers. zâmenidan "to send, lead;" → permit

alloy
  آلیاژ   
âlyâž (#)

Fr.: alliage   

A material composed of two or more → metals, or of a metal or metals with a non-metal, exhibiting characteristic metallic properties. Some examples: → bronze is an alloy of → copper and → tin, brass is an alloy of → zinc and copper, and → steel is an alloy of → iron and → carbon. Alloys have properties which differ from those of their components. Moreover, different component proportions yield alloys with different properties.

From M.F. aloi, from O.Fr. alei, from aleier "to mix, combine," from L. alligare "to bind up," from → ad- "to" + → ligare "to bind."

Âlyâž, loanword from Fr.

annual parallax
  دیدگشت ِ سالانه   
didgašt-e sâlâné

Fr.: parallaxe annuelle   

The difference in position of a star as seen from the → Earth and → Sun, i.e. the angle subtended at a star by the mean → radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Same as → heliocentric parallax. Because the Earth revolves around the Sun, we observe the sky from a constantly moving position in space. Therefore, we should expect to see an annual effect, in which the positions of nearby objects appear to oscillate back and forth in response to our motion around the Sun. This does in fact happen, but the distances to even the nearest stars are so great that we need to make careful observations with a telescope to detect it. The annual parallax of the nearest star, → Proxima Centauri, is 0.762 arcsec, which is too small for our → acuity of vision.

annual; → parallax.

antiparallel
  پاد-پراسو   
pâd-parâsu

Fr.: antiparallèle   

A → pair of → vectors whose directions are parallel but having the opposite sense.

anti-; → parallel.

ball
  توپ، گوی   
tup (#), guy (#)

Fr.: boule, balle, ballon   

A spherical or approximately spherical body, either solid or hollow.

From M.E. bal, balle, from O.Fr.; cf. O.H.G. ballo, Ger. Ball; PIE root *bhel- "to blow, swell."

Tup "ball," initially "clmup, aggregation, parcel, group" (tup tup "many"); Tabari tupa "compressed, assembled," tuppi "round;" Kurd. top "ball," topâl "round;" guy, → globe.

ball lightning
  گوی ِ آذرخش   
gu-ye âzaraxš (#)

Fr.: foudre en bulle   

A rare form of lightning occurring as a bright red globe observed floating or moving through the atmosphere close to the ground. It usually is seen shortly before or after, or during, a → thunderstorm. Its duration varies from a few seconds to a few minutes. See also → Saint Elmo's fire.

ball; → lightning.

ballistic
  پرتابیک   
partâbik (#)

Fr.: balistique   

Of or relating to → ballistics.

ballistic missile
  موشک ِ پرتابیک   
mušak-e partâbik (#)

Fr.: missile balistique   

A missile that after being launched and guided in the early part of its flight, travels unpowered in a ballistic trajectory.

ballistic; → missile.

ballistic panspermia
  پان‌دانه‌وری ِ پرتابیک   
pân-dâne-vari-ye partâbik

Fr.: panspermie balistique   

Transfer of microbes and biochemical compounds from a planet to another due to meteoric impacts. Debris being knocked off a planet like Mars can reach escape velocity and enter the atmosphere of another planet with passenger micro-organisms intact.

ballistic; → panspermia.

ballistic trajectory
  ترایش ِ پرتابیک   
tarâyeš-e partâbik

Fr.: trajectoire balistique   

A curved path followed by an unpowered object that is being acted upon only by gravitational forces and the friction of the medium through which it moves.

ballistic; → trajectory.

ballistic wave
  موج ِ پرتابیک   
mowj-e partâbik

Fr.: onde balistique   

Audible disturbance or wave caused by the compression of air ahead of a projectile in flight.

ballistic; → wave.

ballistics
  پرتابیک، پرتابشناسی   
partâbik (#), partâbšenâsi (#)

Fr.: balistique   

The science of the motion and behavior of → projectiles. The study of the functioning of firearms.

From L. ballista "ancient military machine for hurling stones," from Gk. ballistes, from ballein "to throw," from PIE *gwelH1- "to throw;" cf. Pers. garzin "arrow;" Av. niγr- "to throw down;" Khotanese (+ *abi-, *ui-) bīr- "to throw, sow;" Proto-Iranian *garH- "to throw."

Partâbik, from partâb "a throw, an arrow that flies far," partâbidan "to throw," + -ik, → -ics; partâbšenâsi, from partâb + -šenâsi, → -logy.

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