An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 154 Search : ear
ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)
     

Fr.: ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)   

An → adaptive optics instrument used on the → European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. It was an upgraded version of COME-ON-PLUS, the → Very Large Telescope (VLT) adaptive optics prototype. It had 52 → actuators and performed corrections of the mirror 200 times per second. The reference → wavefront was sensed in the → visible. The observation was done in the → near-infrared (1-5 μm).

adaptive; → optics; → near-infrared; → system.

alkaline earth metal
  فلز ِ قلیایی ِ خاکی   
felez-e qalyâyi-ye xâki (#)

Fr.: terre alcaline   

Any of the metallic chemical elements belonging to group 2 of the → periodic table; i.e. → beryllium, → magnesium, → calcium, → strontium, → barium, and → radium. They are not found free in the nature because they are highly reactive.

alkaline; → earth; → metal.

Felez, → metal; qalyâyi, → alkaline; xâki "of or pertaining to soil," from xâk, → soil.

anomalistic year
  سال ِ پیراهوری   
sâl-e pirâhuri

Fr.: année anomalistique   

Anomalistic from → anomaly.

Pirâhuri from pirâhur, → perihelion.

Besselian year
  سال ِ بسلی   
sâl-e Beseli

Fr.: année besselienne   

The period taken for the right ascension of the mean Sun to increase by 24 hours. The starting point is when the mean Sun's longitude is 280°, corresponding roughly to January 1. It is virtually the same as the tropical year.

Besselian; → year.

calendar year
  سال ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   
sâl-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri

Fr.: année du calendrier   

The time interval between the new year's day in a given calendar system and the day before the following new year's day. In the Gregorian system the calendar year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. In the Iranian calendar it begins on Farvardin 1, the day closest to the spring equinox and ends on Esfand 29 or 30.

calendar; → year.

circumnuclear
  پیراهسته‌ای   
pirâhasteyi

Fr.: circumnucléaire   

Situated around a → nucleus, as of a → circumnuclear disk.

circum- + → nuclear.

circumnuclear disk
  گرده‌ی ِ پیراهسته‌ای   
gerde-ye pirâhasteyi

Fr.: disque circumnucléaire   

A thick disk of gas and dust clouds surrounding the → Galactic Center up to about 20 → light-years. The disk is very clumpy; the → clumps have densities of several 105 particles/cm3, radii of about 0.3 light-years, and gas temperatures above 100 K. The hydrogen mass of the disk is a few 104 → solar masses. Such circumnuclear disks are present also in other galaxies.

circumnuclear; → disk.

clear
  رونه   
runé (#)

Fr.: clair   

1) Free from darkness, obscurity, or cloudiness.
2) Transparent; pellucid.
3) Without discoloration, defect, or blemish (Dictionary.com). → clear night.

M.E. clere, from O.Fr. cler, from L. clarus "clear, bright, distinct."

Runé, from Kurd. (Sorani) rûn "bright, clear," rûn kirdin "to explain," variant of rowšan, → bright.

clear night
  شب ِ رونه   
šab-e runé

Fr.: nuit claire   

A night sky without clouds, mist, or haze, atmospheric dust particles, and without city lights in which a sixth magnitude star is visible by naked-eye.

clear; → night.

collinear
  هم-خط   
ham-xatt

Fr.: colinéaire   

Lying on the same straight line. Collinear points are a set of points on the same line.

com- + → linear.

collinear forces
  نیروهای ِ هم-خط   
niruhâ-ye ham-xatt

Fr.: forces collinéaires   

A system of two or more forces that lie along the same → line of action.

collinear; → force.

collinearity
  هم-خطی   
ham-xatti

Fr.: collinéarité   

A mathematical property where all points lying on a line initially still lie on a line after transformation.

collinear; → -ity.

cosmic shear
  کرن ِ کیهانی   
karn-e keyhâni

Fr.: cisaillement cosmique, ~ gravitationnel   

The distortion of images of distant galaxies due to → weak gravitational lensing by → large-scale structures in the → Universe (see, e.g., Kilbinger, M., 2015, arXiv:1411.0115).

cosmic; → shear.

curvilinear
  خم‌خط   
xam-xatt

Fr.: curviligne   

Consisting of, represented by, or bound by curved lines. → rectilinear.

From → curve + → linear.

ear
  گوش   
guš (#)

Fr.: oreille   

The vertebrate organ of hearing, which is also responsible for maintaining equilibrium. It is usually composed of three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.

M.E. ere, O.E. eare "ear" (O.N. eyra, Dan. øre, M.Du. ore, Du. oor, O.H.G. ora, Ger. Ohr); cf. Gk. aus; L. auris; Av. usi "both ears;" Lith. ausis; O.C.S. ucho; O.Ir. au; PIE *ous-.

Guš "ear" (gušidan "to hear," niyušidan "to listen"); Mid.Pers. gôš "ear," gôšidan "to hear, listen;" O.Pers. gauša-; Av. gaoša- "ear," gaoš- "to hear;" cf. Skt. ghosa- "noise, tumult," ghus- "to sound, cry or proclaim aloud;" PIE *ghous-.

early
  آغازین   
âqâzin (#)

Fr.: précoce; jeune   

Occurring at or near the beginning of a period of time, process, or sequence of events.

M.E. erlich (adj.), erliche (adv.); O.E. ærlice, from ær "soon, ere" (from P.Gmc. *airiz, from PIE *āier- "day, morning," cf. Av. ayar- "day, day time," ayarə.drājah- "duration of one day," ayarə.bara- "day's ride," Mid/Mod.Pers. parēr "the day before yesterday," from *parā.ayer- "the day before") + -lice "-ly," adverbial suffix.

Âqâzin adj. of âqâz "beginning," from Proto-Iranian *āgaHz-, from prefix ā- + *gaHz- "to run, start," cf. Sogdian āγāz "beginning, start" (Cheung 2007).

early AGB phase
  فاز ِ AGBی ِ آغازین   
fâz-e AGB-ye âqâzin

Fr.: phase initiale de l'AGB   

A fairly long-lived step in the evolution of → low-mass and → intermediate-mass stars when helium burning shifts from the center to a shell around the core. At this phase the stellar luminosity is provided almost entirely by → helium shell burning. The He-shell burning generally adds mass to the growing carbon/oxygen core, resulting in → degenerate matter due to its increasing density.

early; → AGB; → phase.

early solar system
  راژمان ِ خورشیدی ِ آغازین   
râžmân-e xoršidi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: système solaire primordial   

A period in the evolution of the → solar system when the planets and satellites were in the process of formation.

early; → solar; → system.

early spectral class star
  ستاره با رده‌ی ِ بینابی ِ آغازین   
setâré bâ rade-ye binâbi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: étoile de type spectral précoce   

A star near the beginning of the → spectral classification sequence. A star of → spectral type O, B, A, or F0 to F5. Same as → early-type star.

early; → spectral; → class; → star.

early Universe
  گیتی ِ آغازین   
giti-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: Univers jeune   

A qualitative term used to describe a phase in the history of the Universe, from the → Big Bang event to the apparition of the first structures (seeds of future galaxies), at a → redshift around 30.

early; → universe.

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