Of or pertaining to the outside or outer part.
Biruni, adj. from birun "out, the outside," → out.
external photoelectric effect
oskar-e šid-barqi-ye boruni
Fr.: effet photoélectrique externe
The → photoelectric effect in solids where free electrons are emitted from the surface of a substance (e.g., → semiconductor) when radiation of appropriate frequency falls on it. Also called → photoemissive effect.
Fr.: travail externe
The work done by a thermodynamic system as it expands against its surrounding environment. It is equal to ∫pdV, where p is the applied external pressure and V the volume, integrated from the initial V1 to final V2.
Verbal noun of → externalize.
1) To make external; embody in an outward form.