An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 10 Search : impact
impact
  برخورد   
barxord (#)

Fr.: impact, collision   

A collision between two bodies. In the case of solar system objects, when one is much smaller than the other (like a meteoroid colliding with the Earth), a crater may be produced on the larger body.

From L. impactus, p.p. of impingere "to drive into, strike against," from → in- "in" + pangere "to fix, fasten."

Barxord, verbal noun of barxordan "to collide, clash, dash against each other," from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + xordan "to hit, strike," originally "to eat, drink, devour," and by extension "to destroy," from Mid.Pers. xvardan "to eat, enjoy (food)," Av. xvar- "to consume, eat;" Laki dialect hovârden "to eat;" Proto-Iranian *huar- "to consume, eat."

impact crater
  لاوک ِ برخورد   
lâvak-e barxord

Fr.: cratère d'impact   

A depression produced by the collision of a meteorite, asteroid, or comet with the surface of a planet or a satellite. Impact craters are the most characteristic surface features of solar system rigid bodies. They range in size up to hundreds or thousands of kilometers (where the impacts create giant basins as on the Moon, Mars, and Mercury).

impact; → crater.

impact event
  رویداد ِ برخورد   
ruydâd-e barxord

Fr.: impact cosmique   

A collision between two celestial objects, specially solar system bodies, with considerable consequences. Impact events involve release of large amounts of energy. Some examples are the 1908 Siberian → Tunguska event by a → comet, the → Barringer Crater, and the collision of an → asteroid with Earth 65 million years ago, which is thought to have led to the extinction of the dinosaurs and other species of the → Cretaceous-Paleogene period.

impact; → event.

impact hazard
  آپه‌ی ِ برخورد   
âpe-ye barxord

Fr.: risque d'impact   

The danger of collision with Earth posed by solar system small bodies that pass near our planet. These objects include → near-Earth asteroids and nuclei of → comets. See also: → near-Earth object, → impact crater, → Torino scale, → Palermo scale, → Space Situational Awareness.

impact; → hazard.

impact ionization
  یونش ِ برخوردی   
yoneš-e barxordi

Fr.: ionisation par collision   

The loss of orbital electrons by an atom of a crystal lattice which has undergone a high-energy collision.

impact; → ionization.

impact parameter
  پارامون ِ برخورد   
pârâmun-e barxord

Fr.: paramètre d'impact   

1) A measure of the distance by which a collision fails being frontal.
2) In → gravitational lensing, the distance of closest approach of the light path to the → lensing object.
3) In → rainbows, the displacement of the → incident from an axis that passes through the center of the water droplet.

impact; → parameter

impact winter
  زمستان ِ برخورد   
zemestân-e barxord

Fr.: hiver par impact   

The enormous drop in temperature and the related effects of the shrouding of Earth with soot and dust particles after the planet is struck by a sizable comet or asteroid. Such a phenomenon is believed to have killed off the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

impact; → winter.

impactite
     
impaktit, barxordit

Fr.: impactite   

A general term used for all rocks affected by, or produced by, the → shock waves and other processes generated by hypervelocity → meteorite → impact events. Impactites occur in and around the → impact crater, typically as individual bodies composed of mixtures of melt and rock fragments, often with traces of meteoritic material.

impact; → -ite.

impactor
  برخوردگر   
barxordgar

Fr.: impacteur   

A natural impacting body, such as a comet, asteroid, or planet. It can also be a space probe designed to collide with an astronomical body in the solar system.

Impactor, from → impact + -or a suffix forming agent nouns.

Barxordgar, from barxord, → impact, + -gar agent suffix, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

meteoritic impact
  برخورد ِ شخانه‌ای   
barxord-e šaxâne-yi

Fr.: impact météoritique   

A striking of a meteorite against another body, especially the solar system planets or satellites.

meteoritic; → impact.