An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 63 Search : part
alpha particle
  ذره‌ی ِ آلفا   
zarre-ye Âlfâ

Fr.: particule alpha   

A positively charged particle emitted from the nuclei of certain atoms during radioactive disintegration. The alpha particle has an atomic weight of 4 and a positive charge equal in magnitude to 2 electronic charges; hence it is essentially a helium nucleus.

alpha; → particle.


Fr.: antiparticule   

Any → elementary particle with a → charge of opposite sign to the same particle in normal matter.

anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → particle.

astroparticle physics
  فیزیک ِ اخترذره   
fizik-e axtar-šzarre

Fr.: physique des astroparicules   

The area of science which deals with → elementary particle and → high-energy phenomena in → astrophysics and → cosmology.

astro-; → particle; → physics.

beam of particles
  تابه‌ی ِ ذره   
tâbe-ye zarré

Fr.: faisceau de particules   

A narrow unidirectional flow of particles

beam; → particle.

beta particle
  ذره‌ی ِ بتا   
zarre-ye betâ (#)

Fr.: particule bêta   

An → electron or a → positron emitted from an unstable nucleus during a → radioactive process known as → beta decay.

The term "beta particle" relates to the early history of the → radioactivity studies when the nature of the emergent particles was not elucidated; → particle.

charged particle
  ذره‌ی ِ باردار   
zarre-ye bârdâr (#)

Fr.: particule chargée   

Any particle containing either a → positive or → negative → electric charge.

charged; → particle.

hamtâ (#)

Fr.: contrpartie   

A person or thing that corresponds to or has the same function as another person or thing in a different place or situation (
electromagnetic counterpart, → optical counterpart, → radio counterpart.

M.E., from O.Fr. contrepartie, from contre "facing, opposite," → counter-, + partie "copy of a person or thing," originally feminine p.p. of partir "to divide."

Hamtâ "counterpart, resembling, equal," from ham- "together, with; same, equally, even," → com-, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part."

disk partition
  پرکش ِ دیسک، ~ گرده   
parkeš-e disk, ~ gerde

Fr.: partition de disque   

A logical division of a hard disk that is treated as a separate unit by operating systems and file systems.

disk; → partition.

electromagnetic counterpart
  همتای ِ برقامغناتی   
hamtâ-ye barqâmeqnâti

Fr.: contrpartie électromagnétique   

An → electromagnetic signal associated with the location on the sky and the time of a → gravitational wave event. The electromagnetic signal is predicted by models to be associated with the → merger of a → compact binary star system composed of two → neutron stars (NS) or a neutron star and a → black hole (BH). Accordingly, the gravitational waves are accompanied by a short-duration → gamma-ray burst (GRB) powered by the → accretion of material that remains in a → centrifugally supported → torus around the BH following the merger. NS-NS/BH-NS mergers are also predicted to be accompanied by a more isotropic counterpart, commonly known as a → kilonova. Kilonovae are day to week-long thermal, → supernova-like → transients, and are powered by the → radioactive decay of heavy, neutron-rich elements synthesized by the → r-process in the expanding merger ejecta (Li and Paczynski 1998). The first detection of an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves belongs to → GW170817.

electromagnetic; → counterpart.

elementary particle
  ذره‌ی ِ بنیادین   
zarre-ye bonyâdin (#)

Fr.: particule élémentaire   

A particle which cannot be divided into other constituents. More specifically, a particle whose field appears in the fundamental field equations of the unified field theory of elementary particles, in particular in the Lagrangian. For example, the → electron, the → photon, and the → quark are elementary particles, whereas the proton and neutron are not. The elementary nature of a particle can be revised depending on new observations or theories. Also called → fundamental particle.

Elementary, M.E. elementare, from M.F. élémentaire, from L. elementarius, from → element + adj. suffix -arius; → particle.

Bonyâdin, from bonyâd "basis, foundation," variant of bonlâd, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom" → element + lâd "root; foundation; reason, cause; wall" + adj. suffix -in.

energetic solar particles
  ذره‌های ِ خورشیدی ِ کاروژمند   
zarrehâ-ye xoršidi-ye kâružmand

Fr.: particules solaires énergétiques   

Electrons and atomic nuclei ejected by solar flares, travelling with velocities amounting to a fraction of the velocity of light, and energies mostly in the range 1-100 million → electronvolts (eV), but occasionally as high as 15 billion eVs. Also known as solar → cosmic rays.

Energetic, from Gk. energetikos, from energe-, → energy, + -tikos a suffix, equivalent in meaning to → -ic, occurring in adjectives; → solar; → particle.

Zarrehâ plural of zarré, → particle; xoršidi, → solar; kâružmand from kâruž, → energy, + -mand possession suffix.

equilibrium partitioning
  پرکه‌بندی ِ ترازمند   
parkebandi-ye tarâzmand

Fr.: équilibre de partition   

A concept whereby chemical → concentrations among geological or environmental media are at equilibrium, and therefore the partitioning of metals in those media can be predicted based on → partition ratios.

equilibrium; → partitioning.

equipartition of energy
  هموگپرکش ِ کاروژ   
hamugparkeš-e kâruž

Fr.: équipartition de l'énergie   

1) General: Equal sharing of the → total energy among all → components of a → system.
2) In the → kinetic theory of gases, the → theorem according to which → molecules in → thermal equilibrium have the same average energy (1/2 kT) associated with each independent → degree of freedom of their motion.

equi-; → partition.

exchange particle
  ذره‌ی ِ گهولی   
zarre-ye gahuli

Fr.: particule d'échange   

In quantum field theory, a particle that transfers momentum and energy between interacting objects, and is said to mediate the interaction. All four of the fundamental forces involve the exchange of one or more particles. For example, photon is the exchange particle of the electromagnetic force.

exchange, → particle.

first-order partial derivative
  واخنه‌ی ِ پاری ِ رایه‌ی ِ نخست   
vâxane-ye pâri-ye râye-ye naxost

Fr.: dérivée partielle du premier degré   

For a → function with several → variables, the derivative, done only once, with respect to one of the variables. For example ∂u/∂x for u = u(x,y).

first; → order; → partial; → derivative.

fundamental particle
  ذره‌ی ِ بنیادین   
zarre-ye bonyâdin (#)

Fr.: particule élémentaire   

Same as → elementary particle.

fundamental; → particle.


Fr.: donner, transmettre, communiquer   

1) To give, convey, or grant from or as if from a store.
2) To communicate the knowledge of; disclose.

M.E., from O.Fr. impartir, from L.L. impartire "to share in, divide with another, communicate," from assimilated form of → in- "into, in" + partire "to divide, → part."

Darpârdan, from dar-, → in-, + pâr, → part, Mid.Pers. pârag "part, portion; gift, offering;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" + -dan infinitive suffix.

integer partition
  پرکش ِ درسته   
parkeš:-e doroste

Fr.: partition des entiers   

An expression of an integer nas the sum of one or more positive integers. The number of different partitions of n is denoted p(n). This function is called the partition function. For example, p(5) = 7, because 5 can be partitioned as: 5 = 5 = 4 + 1 = 3 + 2 = 3 + 1 + 1 = 2 + 2 + 1 = 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1.

partition; → integer.

Lagrangian particle
  ذره‌ی ِ لاگرانژی   
zarre-ye Lâgrânži

Fr.: particule lagrangienne   

Fluid mechanics: In the → Lagrangian method, a particle that moves as though it is an element of fluid. The particle concept is an approach to solving complicated fluid dynamics problems by tracking a large number of particles representing the fluid. The particle may be thought of as the location of the center of mass of the fluid element with one or more property values.

Lagrangian; → particle.


Fr.: nano-particule   

A solid particle of → nanoscale size; e.g. a → nanodust grain.

nano-; → particle.

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