فروشد ِ شامگاهی forušod-e šâmgâhi
*Fr.: coucher acronyque*
The setting of a star at nightfall. → *heliacal setting*. → *acronical*; → *setting*. |

هنگرد ِ کروَن hangard-e karvan
*Fr.: ensemble affine*
A set → *if and only if (iff)*
for any two points in the → *set*,
the line through them is contained in the set. In other words, for any two points in
the set, their → *affine combination*s
are in the set itself. → *affine*; → *set*. |

اپنه ِ آلفا apneh-e Âlfâ
*Fr.: offset en ascension droite*
A short distance from the target, in right ascension, where
the telescope is pointed for various purposes. → *alpha*; → *offset*. |

فروشد ِ پدیدار forušod-e padidâr
*Fr.: coucher apparent*
The instant of time when the object is in the West and the geometric
→ *zenith distance* is equal to 90° plus the
→ *horizontal refraction* plus
the semidiameter minus the → *parallax*. → *apparent*; → *setting*. |

اپنه ِ ورک apneh-e varak
*Fr.: biais*
In → *CCD detector*s, same as
→ *bias* and → *offset*. → *bias*; → *offset*. |

هنگرد ِ اسپر hangard-e ospor
*Fr.: ensemble complet*
*Quantum mechanics*: A set of states such that any state can be represented as a
superposition of them.
→ *complete*; → *set*. |

هنگرد ِ توج hangard-e tuj
*Fr.: ensemble net*
A classical set that allows only full membership or no membership at all for its elements, as
contrasted with a → *fuzzy set*.
Crisp set can be viewed as a restricted case of the more general fuzzy set concept. |

اپنه ِ دلتا apneh-e deltâ
*Fr.: offset en déclinaison*
A short distance from the target, in → *declination*,
where the → *telescope* is pointed for various purposes. → *delta*; → *offset*. |

نیاشش ِ گرده، ~ دیسک niyâšeš-e gerdé, ~ disk
*Fr.: stabilisation de disque*
The process whereby a → *galaxy*
evolves from a disturbed to an ordered system, as it
develops into a → *rotation*
dominated → *settled disk*. → *disk*; → *settling*. |

نیاشش ِ غبار niyâšeš-e qobâr
*Fr.: dépose de poussières*
A process occurring in → *protoplanetary disk*s whereby
relatively large → *dust grain*s settle to the disk midplane.
These grains, with sizes from → *micron* to
→ *millimeter*, grow from smaller dust grains
and will eventually give rise to a planetary system. → *dust*; → *settling*. |

هنگرد ِ تهی hangard-e tohi
*Fr.: ensemble vide*
A set containing no → *element*s. → *empty*; → *set*. |

خانوادهی ِ هنگردها xânevâde-ye hangardhâ
*Fr.: famille de comètes*
A → *collection* of → *subset*s of a set. → *family*; → *set*. |

هنگرد ِ کرانمند hangard-e karânmand
*Fr.: ensemble fini*
A → *set* whose elements can be numbered from 1 to *n*, for some
positive integer *n*. → * finite*; → *set*. |

هنگرد ِ پرزوار hangard-e porzvâr
*Fr.: ensemble flou*
A set of → *truth value*s in → *fuzzy logic*
that does not have sharp boundaries. Instead, set members have degrees of membership.
If the value of 1 is assigned to objects entirely within the set and a 0 is assigned
to objects outside of the set, then any object partially in the set will have a value
between 0 and 1. This contrast with → *crisp set*s
in → *classical logic*
where members assume a precise value of 1 or 0. Fuzzy sets were first introduced by
Lotfi A. Zadeh (1965) and defined as follows.
Let X be a space of points, with a generic element of X denoted by *x*. Thus X = {*x*}.
A fuzzy set A in X is characterized by a → *membership function*
*f*_{A}(*x*)
which associates with each point in X a real number in the interval [0,1], with the
values of *f*_{A}(*x*) at *x* representing the "grade of membership"
of *x* in A. Thus, the nearer the value of *f*_{A}(*x*)
to unity, the higher the grade of membership of *x* in A.
Generally, the intersection operations of fuzzy sets are the expansion of that
operation on → *nonfuzzy set*s. In other words, operations on
nonfuzzy sets are a particular case of operations on fuzzy sets. → *fuzzy*; → *set*. |

نیاشش ِ گرانشی niyâšeš-e gerâneši
*Fr.: décantation par gravité*
A physical process occurring in stellar atmospheres whereby in a very stable atmosphere
→ *heavy element*s are gravitationally pulled down preferentially.
If such an atmosphere is stable for long periods of time, the absorption lines of
heavy elements may therefore become very weak. Observationally, the star seems
to contain only hydrogen and helium. Gravitational settling takes place in the Sun at
the bottom of the outer → *convective zone* where helium is
dragged down, leading to a surface He abundant smaller than the cosmic value. It occurs
also in the atmospheres of → *brown dwarf*s and
→ *planet*s. → *gravitational*; → *settling*. |

فروشد ِ هورانه forušod-e hurâné
*Fr.: coucher héliaque*
The last visible setting of a star below the western horizon just after sunset
entering into a conjunction with the Sun. → *heliacal*; → *setting*. |

هنگرد ِ بیکران hangard-e bikarân
*Fr.: ensemble infini*
A set which can be put in a one-to-one correspondence with part of itself. → *infinite*; → *set*. |

هنگرد ِ ماندلبروت hangard-e Mandelbrot
*Fr.: ensemble de Mandelbrot*
A set of points in the complex plane, the boundary of which forms a fractal
with varying shapes at different magnifications.
Mathematically, it is the set of all *C* values for which the iteration
*z*_{n+1} = z_{n}^{2} + C,
starting from *z*_{0} = 0, does not diverge to infinity. Discovered by Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-)
a Polish-born French mathematician, best known as the "father of fractal geometry;"
→ *set*. |

فروشد ِ ماه forušod-e mâh (#)
*Fr.: coucher de la lune*
The crossing of the visible horizon by the upper limb of the descending Moon. → *moon*; → *set*. |

لک ِ فروشد ِ ماه lek-e forušod-e mâh
*Fr.: retard du coucher de la lune*
The delay between → *sunset* and → *moonset*. → *moonset*; → *lag*. |