An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 25 Search : thesis
ad hoc hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ پدیم   
engâre-ye pad im

Fr.: hypothèse ad hoc   

Addition of adjustments to a theory to save it from being falsified by compensating for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. Theories that rely on continual, ad hoc adjustments are distrusted.

ad hoc; → hypothesis.

alternative hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ دگرینه   
engâre-ye degarine

Fr.: hypothèse alternative   

Statistics: In → significance testing, any hypothesis which differs from the one being tested. A hypothesis alternative to the → null hypothesis is denoted by H1.

alternative; → hypothesis.


Fr.: antithèse   

Logical or verbal opposition.
Philo. The second of two opposed propositions in Hegelian dialectic, the first of which is the → thesis; → synthesis.

anti-; → thesis.

aperture synthesis
  هندایش ِ دهانه   
handâyeš-e dahâné

Fr.: synthèse d'ouverture   

The method of combining the signals received by several smaller telescopes distributed over a very large area or baseline to provide the high angular resolution of a much large telescope.

aperture; → synthesis.

Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN)
  هسته‌هندایش ِ مهبانگ، ~ بیگ بنگ   
haste-handâyeš-e Meh Bâng, ~ Big Bang

Fr.: nucléosynthèse de Big Bang   

The production of → light elements, roughly three minutes after the → Big Bang when the temperature of the → Universe dropped from 1032 K to approximately 109 K. In a short time interval → protons and → neutrons collided to produce → deuterium. Most of the deuterium then fused with other protons and neutrons to produce → helium and a small amount of → tritium. The element → lithium 7 could also arise form the coalescence of one tritium and two deuterium nuclei. According to the Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory, roughly 25% of the mass of the Universe consists of helium. It also predicts about 0.01% deuterium, and even smaller quantities of lithium. These predictions depend critically on the → baryon-photon ratio. Same as → primordial nucleosynthesis.

Big Bang; → nucleosynthesis.


Fr.: chimiosynthèse   

In biochemistry, the ability to produce organic compounds using energy contained in inorganic molecules. Chemosynthesis is similar to → photosynthesis. Instead of using light as an energy source to make food, energy or compounds from chemical reactions is used. Most chemosynthetic organisms are bacteria.

chemo-; → synthesis.

de Broglie hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ دوبروی   
engâre-ye de Broglie

Fr.: hypothèse de de Broglie   

The suggestion by Louis de Broglie in 1924 whereby if → electromagnetic waves possess particle properties (→ particle nature), then it might be reasonable to suppose that material particles, such as → electrons, should possess wave properties (→ wave nature). The de Broglie hypothesis was based on the intuitive feeling that nature seems to have strong attachment to symmetry. In other words, if radiation has particle-like properties, then material particles should possess wave-like properties. At the time no direct experimental evidence was present for the validity of this suggestion. The first confirmation of de Broglie's hypothesis was provided by the → Davisson-Germer experiment. See also → wave-particle duality;

de Broglie equation; → hypothesis.

explosive nucleosynthesis
  هسته اندایش ِ اسکفتی   
hasté andâyeš-e oskafti

Fr.: nucléosynthèse explosive   

The explosive processes that are believed to occur in supernovae. Explosive carbon burning occurs at a temperature of about 2 × 109 degrees and produces the nuclei from neon to silicon. Explosive oxygen burning occurs near 4 × 109 degrees and produces nuclei between silicon and calcium in atomic weight.At higher temperatures, still heavier nuclei are produced.

explosive; → nucleosynthesis.

giant impact hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی برخورد ِ غول‌آسا   
engâre-ye barxord-e qulâsâ

Fr.: hypothèse de l'impact géant   

A model for → Moon formation (initially put forward by Hartmann and Davis, 1975, Icarus 24, 504), according to which the → proto-Earth suffered a collision with another → protoplanet near the end of the → accretion process that ejected material into a → circumterrestrial disk, out of which the Moon formed. Also called → canonical model. The giant impact hypothesis is the leading theory for lunar formation. There are, however, some key observations that cannot be explained using this model. First, the Moon is a large fraction of the mass of Earth (~ 1%) and it is difficult to get enough mass into orbit to form such a massive Moon. Second, the Moon has a similar bulk composition to the Earth, but it is missing large amounts of more → volatile elements. The model does not properly explain Moon's distinctive composition. Finally, Earth and the Moon share virtually the same → isotopic ratios. It is therefore expected that the body that hit the Earth, often called → Theia, would have had a different isotopic ratio than the proto-Earth. In the canonical model, most of the mass of the Moon comes from Theia and so the Moon should have a different isotopic fingerprint than Earth, but it does not. The type of impact that formed the Moon in the canonical model is dictated by a very strong constraint, the → angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. It is assumed that the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system immediately after the Moon formed was the same as it is today. This assumption limits the velocity of the impact, the mass of the impacting bodies, and the angle at which the two bodies collided. It was found that only a grazing impact with a Mars-mass impactor at near the escape velocity can put enough mass into orbit to potentially form a lunar-mass Moon. This is why the canonical model is such a specific type of impact. However, the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system could have been reduced over time by competition between the gravitational pull of Earth, the Moon and the Sun. Therefore, the Moon-forming collision could have been much more energetic than the canonical impact.
Simon Lock and Sarah Stewart (2017, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 122, 950-982) have shown that such high-energy, high-angular momentum impacts can produce a different type of planetary object, → synestias. High-energy impacts vaporize a substantial fraction (~ 10%) of the rock of the impacting bodies and the resulting synestias can be huge, with equatorial radii of more than ten times that of the present-day Earth. Because the impact-produced synestia was so big, the Moon formed inside the vapor of the synestia surrounded by gas at pressures of tens of bars and temperatures of 3000-4000 K. Fragments of molten rock from the impact collided together and formed a lunar seed orbiting within the vapor of the synestia. The surface of the synestia was hot (2300 K) and the body cooled rapidly. The loss of energy led to the condensation of rock droplets at the surface of the synestia, and a torrential rock rain fell towards the center of the synestia. Some of this rain was revaporized in the hot vapor of the synestia, but some encountered the lunar seed, and the Moon grew. As the synestia cooled, more of the vapor condensed and the body contracted rapidly. After ten years or so, the synestia shrank inside the orbit of the Moon and the nearly fully-formed Moon emerged from the vapor of the synestia. The synestia continued to cool and became a planet within a thousand years or so of the Moon emerging from the structure. Without the tight constraint of the angular momentum, impacts that form synestias can put a lot more mass into the outer regions of the synestia than can be put into the disk in the canonical impact. This makes forming a large, lunar-mass Moon much easier. Moreover, because the Moon formed within the synestia, surrounded by hot vapor, it inherited its composition from Earth but only retained the elements that are more difficult to vaporize. The more volatile elements remained in the vapor of the synestia. When the synestia cooled and contracted inside the Moon's orbit, it took all the more volatile elements with it. This model can also help explain the isotopic similarity between Earth and the Moon. The Moon inherited its isotopic fingerprint from the vapor that surrounded it in the outer regions of the synestia. Energetic impacts that form synestias tend to efficiently mix material from the two colliding bodies, and the outer portions of the synestia in which the Moon formed would have had an isotopic composition that was similar to the rest of the synestia. Earth and the Moon therefore share a similar isotopic fingerprint which is made by a mixture of the isotopic compositions of both the bodies that collided.

giant; → impact; → hypothesis.

  انگاره، اوپاداین   
engâre (#), upâdâyan

Fr.: hypothèse   

A statement which is based on previous observations and which serves as a starting point for further investigation by which it may be proved or disproved. See also → theory, → model, → ad hoc hypothesis, → Kant-Laplace hypothesis, → arge number hypothesis, → nebular hypothesis, → null hypothesis, → statistical hypothesis, → statistical hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis, from M.Fr. hypothèse, from L.L. hypothesis, from Gk. hypothesis "base, basis of an argument, supposition," literally "a placing under," from → hypo- "under" + thesis "a placing, proposition," from root of tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do;" cf. Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give," O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do."

Engâré, from engâridan, engâštan "to → suppose."
Upâdâyan, from upâ-, → hypo-, + dâyan, → thesis.

Kant-Laplace hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ کانت-لاپلاس   
engâre-ye Kant-Laplace

Fr.: hypothèse de Kant-Laplace   

The hypothesis of the origin of the solar system proposed first by Kant (1755) and later by Laplace (1796). According to this hypothesis, the solar system began as a nebula of tenuous gas. Particles collided and gradually, under the influence of gravitation, the condensing gas took the form of a disk. Larger bodies formed, moving in circular orbits around the central condensation (the Sun).

Named after the German prominent philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and the French great mathematician, physicist, and astronomer Pierre-Simon Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827); → hypothesis.

large number hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ عددهای ِ بزرگ   
engâre-ye adadhâ-ye bozorg

Fr.: hypothèse des grands nombres   

The idea whereby the coincidence of various → large numbers would bear a profound sense as to the nature of physical laws and the Universe. Dirac suggested that the coincidence seen among various large numbers of different nature is not accidental but must point to a hitherto unknown theory linking the quantum mechanical origin of the Universe to the various cosmological parameters. As a consequence, some of the → fundamental constants cannot remain unchanged for ever. According to Dirac's hypothesis, atomic parameters cannot change with time and hence the → gravitational constant should vary inversely with time (G∝ 1/t). Dirac, P. A. M., 1937, Nature 139, 323; 1938, Proc. R. Soc. A165, 199.

large; → number; → hypothesis.

nebular hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ میغ   
engâre-ye miq

Fr.: hypothèse nébulaire   

The hypothesis first put forward in the 18-th century that the solar system formed from a primeval nebula around the Sun. Same as the → Kant-Laplace hypothesis.

nebular; → hypothesis.

no boundary hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ گیتی بی کران ِ آغازین   
engâre-ye giti bi karân-e âqâzin

Fr.: l'hypothèse de l'Univers sans limite initiale   

The proposal whereby the → Universe would not have begun with a → singularity. Instead, the → Big Bang would be an ordinary point of → space-time. The proposal, advanced by James Hartle and Stephen Hawking (1983) results from an attempt to combine aspects of → general relativity and → quantum mechanics. Based on an imaginary time assumption, it predicts a closed Universe that would start at a single point, that can be compared to the North Pole of the Earth on a two-dimensional space. Before the → Planck era there was space, but the real time began with the Big Bang event. → Hartle-Hawking initial state.

boundary; → hypothesis.


Fr.: nucléosynthèse   

The process by which → nuclear reactions at very high temperatures and pressures produce the various → chemical elements of the → periodic table, either in the → Big Bang or in stellar interiors. See also → primordial nucleosynthesis, → stellar nucleosynthesis, → explosive nucleosynthesis.

From nucleo-, combining form of → nucleus + → synthesis.

Haste-handâyeš, from hasténucleus + handâyešsynthesis.

null hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ نول   
engâre-ye nul

Fr.: hypothèse nulle   

Statistics: The assumption of the absence of a particular pattern in a set of data. The null hypothesis, denoted by H0, is put forward to be rejected in order to support an → alternative hypothesis.

null; → hypothesis.


Fr.: photosynthèse   

The process in green plants, algae, diatoms, and certain forms of bacteria by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a byproduct.

photo- + → synthesis.

primordial nucleosynthesis
  هسته‌هندایش ِ بن‌آغازین   
haste-handâyeš-e bonâqâzin

Fr.: nucléosynthèse primordiale   

The formation of → chemical elements in the → early Universe, between about 0.01 seconds and 3 minutes after the → Big Bang, when the nuclei of primordial matter collided and fused with one another. Most of the → helium in the → Universe was created by this process. Same as → Big Bang nucleosynthesis

primordial; → nucleosynthesis.

spectral synthesis
  هندایش ِ بینابی   
handâyeš-e binâbi

Fr.: synthèse spectrale   

The process of computing line strengths in stellar spectra using an appropriate stellar atmosphere model, atomic and molecular data, and the numerical solution of the → radiative transfer equation at each point in the spectrum.

spectral; → synthesis.

statistical hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ آماری   
engâre-ye âmâri

Fr.: hypothèse statistique   

An assumed statement about the way a → random variable is distributed. A statistical hypothesis generally specifies the form of the → probability distribution or the values of the parameters of the distribution. The statement may be true or false. See also → null hypothesis.

statistical; → hypothesis.

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