An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12863 Search : in
  سنجیدار ِ ریلی   
sanjidâr-e Rayleigh

Fr.: critère de Rayleigh   

A criterion for the instability of a basic swirling flow with an arbitrary dependence of angular velocity Ω(r) on the distance r from the axis of rotation. This states that in → inviscid fluids: Ω(r) < 0 for instability, where Ω = (1/r3) (d/dr)(r4Ω4).

Rayleigh; → criterion.

"nongravitational forces"
  "نیروهای ِ ناگرانشی"   
"niruhâ-ye nâgerâneši" (#)

Fr.: "forces non-gravitationnelles"   

The forces of jets from a comet's nucleus that can cause a rocket-like effect and alter a comet's direction of motion slightly.

non-; → gravitational; → force.

"shadow of the nucleus"
  "سایه‌ی ِ هسته"   
"sâye-ye hasté"

Fr.: "ombre du noyau"   

A dark lane that appears behind the coma in some comets. It is not the shadow of the true nucleus but sometimes may be a region of the near-tail that lies behind the densest part of the inner coma and therefore receives less sunlight.

shadow; → nucleus.

(486958) 2014 MU69
     
(486958) 2014 MU69

Fr.: (486958) 2014 MU69   

A → trans-Neptunian object located in the → Kuiper belt, nicknamed Ultima Thule. It is elongated in shape with estimated dimensions of about 31 by 19 km. NASA's → New Horizons spacecraft conducted a close → flyby of the object on January 1, 2019 just 3,500 km above the object's surface. The images it took show that the object has in fact two distinct lobes. At a heliocentric distance of 44 → astronomical units, (486958) 2014 MU69 is the most distant object ever visited by a spacecraft. It has an → orbital period of 298 years, a small → inclination (~ 2.45°), and a low → eccentricity (0.042).

asteroid designation.

-able, -ble, -ible
  -یی، -پذیر   
-i (#), -pazir (#)

Fr.: -able, -ble, -ible   

Suffix forming adjectives with meanings "capable of, susceptible of, worthy of, tending to."

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. -abilis, -ibilis, from -a- and -i- + -bilis.

The capability suffix -i is added to the infinitive form.
-pazir "receiving, accepting, admitting, having," from paziroftan "to receive, accept, admit," Mid.Pers. padiriftan, padir- "to receive, accept," from Proto-Iranian *pati- + *grab- "to grab, seize, take," Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize;" cp. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab (E. grab); PIE *ghrebh- "to seize."

-aceous
   -آسا   
-âsâ

Fr.: -acé   

A prefix with several meanings: "characterized by," "of the nature of," "belonging to or connected with a division of animals characterized by or of the nature of," "belonging to or connected with a family of plants of the nature of."

From L. --aceus.

-âsâ a suffix denoting "resemblance; nature; relation," from Mid.Pers. suffix -ihâ forming adverbs.

-al
  ۱) -ای، -ور، -مند؛ ۲) -آل، و دیگرها   
1) -i (#), -var (#), -mand (#); 2) -âl (#), various solutions

Fr.: -al   

1) Adjective suffix denoting "of, relating to, or characterized by;" e.g. astronomical, material, equal, final, general, directional, fictional, etc. Variant → -ar.
2) Noun suffix, used with verbs (refusal, rehearsal, etc.) or nouns (canal, etc.).

1) M.E., from O.Fr., from L. -alis
2) M.E. -aille, from O.Fr., from L. -alia, from neuter pl. of -alis.

1) -i, contraction of -ik, → -ic; -var Mid.Pers. -uwar, -war, from O.Pers. -bara, from bar- "to bear, carry," variant -ur; -mand from Mid.Pers. -omand, O.Pers./Av. -mant, cf. Skt. -mant.
2) In Persian, -al, a suffix of attributes and similarity, is used to form adjectives that often become nouns. Sometimes it occurs as -al or -el and may be confounded with -ul and -ulé, → -ule. Its link with L. -alis is not established. Some examples:
dombâl "rear part; continuation; tail," from domb "tail" + -âl,
cangâl "fork; claws," from cang "claw; hook" + -âl,
pušâl "tinder, rubbish," from puc, puk "hollow" + -âl,
ravâl "trend," from row present stem of raftan "to go" + -âl,
xoškâl "dried twigs and leaves of a green tree," from xošk "dry" + -âl,
tofâl "remains of anything squeezed," from tof "saliva" + -âl,
kupâl "club," from kup-, kub(idan) "to beat, strike, pound" + -âl,
gowdâl "hole, pit, low place," from gowd "deep" + -âl,
tâval "blister," from tâv-, tâb-, tâbidan "to become warm, burn," + -al.
kandâl "pit (Qâeni), watercourse, canal (Kordi)," from kand stem of kandan "to dig, pluck, extract" + -âl,
mərdâl (Tâleši Xošabar) "dead," from mərd "to die" + -âl,
capâl "left-handed," from cap "left" + -âl,
gaštal (Laki) "wanderer, vagabond," from gaštan "to turn, return, change, look about" + -al,
kašal (Torbat Heydariye-yi) "elongated," from kašidan "to draw, extend" + -al,
gerdel (Hamadâni, Lori, Qomi) "round, loop," from gerd "round" + -el,
peškel "orbicular dung of sheep," from pešk "dung" + -el.

-ance
   -اگی، -ایگی، -آیی، -ش   
-egi, -igi, -âi, -âyi, -eš

Fr.: -ance   

Suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives of from verbs; it expresses 1) state or condition (brilliance, absorptance); 2) action (e.g. continuance).

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. -antia.

-Egi, -igi, -âi, -âyi, -eš Pers. noun suffixes denoting state, condition.

-ant
     

Fr.: -ant   

Same as → -ent.

-ar
  -یی   
-i

Fr.: -aire   

A suffix of adjectives, meaning "of, relating to, or resembling," as in polar "of or relating to": molecular, "being": spectacular.

M.E., from O.Fr. -er, from L. -aris, variant of -alis, → -al.

-ary
     
-i

Fr.: -aire   

An adjective and noun suffix denoting thing or person belonging to or connected with.

From L. -arius, -aria, -arium "connected with, pertaining to; the man engaged in."

-i, Mid.Pers. -ig, -ik, → -ics.

-ate
  ۱) -آت   
1) -ât (#)

Fr.: 1) -ate   

1) A suffix used in chemical terminology, in particular to indicate a salt of an acid ending in -ic and not beginning with → hydro-, such as silicate, nitrate, sulfate.
2) Verbal suffix denoting "to act upon" (in a specific way), "to cause to become."

1) From M.E. -aten, from L. -atus p.p. ending of 1st conjugable verbs.
2) Very likely from N.L. expressions as plumbum acetatum salt produced by the action of acetic acid on lead.

-cide
   -کشی   
-koši (#)

Fr.: -cide   

A suffix meaning "killer; act of killing." → genocide.

M.E., from L. -cida "cutter, killer," -cidium "act of killing," from combining form -cidere, from caedere "to strike down, kill."

-koši, from koštan "to kill," Mid.Pers. kuštan "to kill, to stuggle;" related to košti "fighting, wrestling;" Av. kuš- "to fight, to struggle" (Cheung 2007).

-cracy
   -سالاری   
-sâlâri

Fr.: -cracie   

A combining form occurring in loanwords from Greek with the meaning "rule, government, governing body." → theocracy.

From Fr. -cratie, from M.L. -cratia, from Gk. -kratia "power, might; rule; authority," from kratos "strength," from PIE *kre-tes- "power, strength," suffixed form of root *kar-/*ker- "→ hard." "hard."

From sâlâr "leader, chieftain, commander;" Mid.Pers. sâlâr "leader, master;" variant of sardâr "commander, chief, general," from sar "chief, → head," + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan; O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support."

-ence
   -اگی، -ایگی، -آیی   
-egi, -igi, -âi, -âyi

Fr.: -ence   

A noun suffix equivalent to → -ance.

-ance.

-ency
     

Fr.: -ence   

A suffix denoting quality or state.

From L. -entia.

-ent
     

Fr.: -ent   

A suffix with the sense "causing or performing an action or existing in a certain condition." Same as → -ant.

From Fr. -ent and directly from L. -entem (nominative -ens), pr.p. suffix of verbs in -ere/-ire.

-eous
   -ای، -مند، -ناک، -ور   
-i, -mand, -nâk, -var

Fr.: -eux   

An adjective forming suffix with the meanings "ccomposed of, resembling, having the nature of."

-ous.

-er
   -گر، -گار، -کار، -آر، -نده   
-gar (#), -gâr (#), -kâr (#), -âr (#), -andé (#)

Fr.: -eur   

A suffix serving as the regular English formative of agent nouns, being attached to verbs of any origin.

M.E. -er(e), corresponding to L. → -or, O.E. -ere; cf. Ger. -er, Sw. -are, Dan. -ere.

-or.

-escence
   -استی   
-esti

Fr.: -escence   

A suffix denoting "action, process, state, or condition," and corresponding to adjectives ending in -escent. → luminescence.

From L. -escentia, from escens, from esse "to be," → existence, + -ia

-esti, noun from -est, variant of ast, hast "is, → exists," cognate with L. -escence, as above.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg Arn art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aut aut axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel bes bia Big bin bin bip bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bot bow bre bri bro bur cal cal Can cap car cas cat cau cel cen cen cha cha cha che chi chu cir cir cla cla clo clu CO coa cog col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con Con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dow dri dur dus dyn dyn ear eav ecl edd eff Ein ekp ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer Fey fie fin fir fiv fla flu fly fon for for Fou fra Fre fri ful fuz Gal Gal gal Gam gas Gau gen geo geo geo geo Gib glo gov gra gra gra gra Gre gro gul H-R hal ham har Hay hea hel hel hem Her het hig Hil hol hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea jou Jup Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym MAC mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo mot mul mul mut nak nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nin noi non non noo nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli onl ope opp opt opt orb ord ori orr osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua Qua qua r-p rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swe syn syn tad Tau tel ten ter tet the the the thi tho Thu tid tim toa top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wal wat wav wax wea wei Whi wil win WN7 wor X-r yel ytt zer ZZ > >>