An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12926 Search : in
  سنجیدار ِ ریلی   
sanjidâr-e Rayleigh

Fr.: critère de Rayleigh   

A criterion for the instability of a basic swirling flow with an arbitrary dependence of angular velocity Ω(r) on the distance r from the axis of rotation. This states that in → inviscid fluids: Ω(r) < 0 for instability, where Ω = (1/r3) (d/dr)(r4Ω4).

Rayleigh; → criterion.

"nongravitational forces"
  "نیروهای ِ ناگرانشی"   
"niruhâ-ye nâgerâneši" (#)

Fr.: "forces non-gravitationnelles"   

The forces of jets from a comet's nucleus that can cause a rocket-like effect and alter a comet's direction of motion slightly.

non-; → gravitational; → force.

"shadow of the nucleus"
  "سایه‌ی ِ هسته"   
"sâye-ye hasté"

Fr.: "ombre du noyau"   

A dark lane that appears behind the coma in some comets. It is not the shadow of the true nucleus but sometimes may be a region of the near-tail that lies behind the densest part of the inner coma and therefore receives less sunlight.

shadow; → nucleus.

(486958) 2014 MU69
     
(486958) 2014 MU69

Fr.: (486958) 2014 MU69   

A → trans-Neptunian object located in the → Kuiper belt, nicknamed Ultima Thule. It is elongated in shape with estimated dimensions of about 31 by 19 km. NASA's → New Horizons spacecraft conducted a close → flyby of the object on January 1, 2019 just 3,500 km above the object's surface. The images it took show that the object has in fact two distinct lobes. At a heliocentric distance of 44 → astronomical units, (486958) 2014 MU69 is the most distant object ever visited by a spacecraft. It has an → orbital period of 298 years, a small → inclination (~ 2.45°), and a low → eccentricity (0.042).

asteroid designation.

-able, -ble, -ible
  -یی، -پذیر   
-i (#), -pazir (#)

Fr.: -able, -ble, -ible   

Suffix forming adjectives with meanings "capable of, susceptible of, worthy of, tending to."

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. -abilis, -ibilis, from -a- and -i- + -bilis.

The capability suffix -i is added to the infinitive form.
-pazir "receiving, accepting, admitting, having," from paziroftan "to receive, accept, admit," Mid.Pers. padiriftan, padir- "to receive, accept," from Proto-Iranian *pati- + *grab- "to grab, seize, take," Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize;" cp. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab (E. grab); PIE *ghrebh- "to seize."

-aceous
   -آسا   
-âsâ

Fr.: -acé   

A prefix with several meanings: "characterized by," "of the nature of," "belonging to or connected with a division of animals characterized by or of the nature of," "belonging to or connected with a family of plants of the nature of."

From L. --aceus.

-âsâ a suffix denoting "resemblance; nature; relation," from Mid.Pers. suffix -ihâ forming adverbs.

-al
  ۱) -ای، -ور، -مند؛ ۲) -آل، و دیگرها   
1) -i (#), -var (#), -mand (#); 2) -âl (#), various solutions

Fr.: -al   

1) Adjective suffix denoting "of, relating to, or characterized by;" e.g. astronomical, material, equal, final, general, directional, fictional, etc. Variant → -ar.
2) Noun suffix, used with verbs (refusal, rehearsal, etc.) or nouns (canal, etc.).

1) M.E., from O.Fr., from L. -alis
2) M.E. -aille, from O.Fr., from L. -alia, from neuter pl. of -alis.

1) -i, contraction of -ik, → -ic; -var Mid.Pers. -uwar, -war, from O.Pers. -bara, from bar- "to bear, carry," variant -ur; -mand from Mid.Pers. -omand, O.Pers./Av. -mant, cf. Skt. -mant.
2) In Persian, -al, a suffix of attributes and similarity, is used to form adjectives that often become nouns. Sometimes it occurs as -al or -el and may be confounded with -ul and -ulé, → -ule. Its link with L. -alis is not established. Some examples:
dombâl "rear part; continuation; tail," from domb "tail" + -âl,
cangâl "fork; claws," from cang "claw; hook" + -âl,
pušâl "tinder, rubbish," from puc, puk "hollow" + -âl,
ravâl "trend," from row present stem of raftan "to go" + -âl,
xoškâl "dried twigs and leaves of a green tree," from xošk "dry" + -âl,
tofâl "remains of anything squeezed," from tof "saliva" + -âl,
kupâl "club," from kup-, kub(idan) "to beat, strike, pound" + -âl,
gowdâl "hole, pit, low place," from gowd "deep" + -âl,
tâval "blister," from tâv-, tâb-, tâbidan "to become warm, burn," + -al.
kandâl "pit (Qâeni), watercourse, canal (Kordi)," from kand stem of kandan "to dig, pluck, extract" + -âl,
mərdâl (Tâleši Xošabar) "dead," from mərd "to die" + -âl,
capâl "left-handed," from cap "left" + -âl,
gaštal (Laki) "wanderer, vagabond," from gaštan "to turn, return, change, look about" + -al,
kašal (Torbat Heydariye-yi) "elongated," from kašidan "to draw, extend" + -al,
gerdel (Hamadâni, Lori, Qomi) "round, loop," from gerd "round" + -el,
peškel "orbicular dung of sheep," from pešk "dung" + -el.

-ance
   -اگی، -ایگی، -آیی، -ش   
-egi, -igi, -âi, -âyi, -eš

Fr.: -ance   

Suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives of from verbs; it expresses 1) state or condition (brilliance, absorptance); 2) action (e.g. continuance).

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. -antia.

-Egi, -igi, -âi, -âyi, -eš Pers. noun suffixes denoting state, condition.

-ant
     

Fr.: -ant   

Same as → -ent.

-ar
  -یی   
-i

Fr.: -aire   

A suffix of adjectives, meaning "of, relating to, or resembling," as in polar "of or relating to": molecular, "being": spectacular.

M.E., from O.Fr. -er, from L. -aris, variant of -alis, → -al.

-ary
     
-i

Fr.: -aire   

An adjective and noun suffix denoting thing or person belonging to or connected with.

From L. -arius, -aria, -arium "connected with, pertaining to; the man engaged in."

-i, Mid.Pers. -ig, -ik, → -ics.

-ate
  ۱) -آت   
1) -ât (#)

Fr.: 1) -ate   

1) A suffix used in chemical terminology, in particular to indicate a salt of an acid ending in -ic and not beginning with → hydro-, such as silicate, nitrate, sulfate.
2) Verbal suffix denoting "to act upon" (in a specific way), "to cause to become."

1) From M.E. -aten, from L. -atus p.p. ending of 1st conjugable verbs.
2) Very likely from N.L. expressions as plumbum acetatum salt produced by the action of acetic acid on lead.

-cide
   -کشی   
-koši (#)

Fr.: -cide   

A suffix meaning "killer; act of killing." → genocide.

M.E., from L. -cida "cutter, killer," -cidium "act of killing," from combining form -cidere, from caedere "to strike down, kill."

-koši, from koštan "to kill," Mid.Pers. kuštan "to kill, to stuggle;" related to košti "fighting, wrestling;" Av. kuš- "to fight, to struggle" (Cheung 2007).

-cracy
   -سالاری   
-sâlâri

Fr.: -cracie   

A combining form occurring in loanwords from Greek with the meaning "rule, government, governing body." → theocracy.

From Fr. -cratie, from M.L. -cratia, from Gk. -kratia "power, might; rule; authority," from kratos "strength," from PIE *kre-tes- "power, strength," suffixed form of root *kar-/*ker- "→ hard." "hard."

From sâlâr "leader, chieftain, commander;" Mid.Pers. sâlâr "leader, master;" variant of sardâr "commander, chief, general," from sar "chief, → head," + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan; O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support."

-ence
   -اگی، -ایگی، -آیی   
-egi, -igi, -âi, -âyi

Fr.: -ence   

A noun suffix equivalent to → -ance.

-ance.

-ency
     

Fr.: -ence   

A suffix denoting quality or state.

From L. -entia.

-ent
     

Fr.: -ent   

A suffix with the sense "causing or performing an action or existing in a certain condition." Same as → -ant.

From Fr. -ent and directly from L. -entem (nominative -ens), pr.p. suffix of verbs in -ere/-ire.

-eous
   -ای، -مند، -ناک، -ور   
-i, -mand, -nâk, -var

Fr.: -eux   

An adjective forming suffix with the meanings "ccomposed of, resembling, having the nature of."

-ous.

-er
   -گر، -گار، -کار، -آر، -نده   
-gar (#), -gâr (#), -kâr (#), -âr (#), -andé (#)

Fr.: -eur   

A suffix serving as the regular English formative of agent nouns, being attached to verbs of any origin.

M.E. -er(e), corresponding to L. → -or, O.E. -ere; cf. Ger. -er, Sw. -are, Dan. -ere.

-or.

-escence
   -استی   
-esti

Fr.: -escence   

A suffix denoting "action, process, state, or condition," and corresponding to adjectives ending in -escent. → luminescence.

From L. -escentia, from escens, from esse "to be," → existence, + -ia

-esti, noun from -est, variant of ast, hast "is, → exists," cognate with L. -escence, as above.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t bai Bal bar bar Be bee Bes bi- bif bin bin bio bis bla bli blu Boe Bol bor bou bra bri Bro bum CAI cal Can cap car car cat cat CCD Cel cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det dev dia dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dou dri dup dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre Fre Fro fus G-t gal gal Gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla gol gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gui H a haf Hal har har He- hea hel Hel her Her hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil kly L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mec mem mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo MOS mul mul mut nai nas nat neb neg Neu neu New New Nih noi non non non nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove oxi pac Pal par par Par par pas Pau Pel per per per per per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pip Pla pla pla pla pla Plu Poi pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res rev rhe Rie Rig Rit roe Ros rot Ruf Ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha she sho sic sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sof sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti Val var vec vel ver ver Vin vir vis Vog von wal wat wav wax wea wei Whi wil win WN7 wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>