An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1330
charged particle
  ذره‌ی ِ باردار   
zarre-ye bârdâr (#)

Fr.: particule chargée   

Any particle containing either a → positive or → negative → electric charge.

charged; → particle.


Fr.: Chariklo   

An → asteroid that belongs to the class of → Centaurs (discovered through stellar → occultation observations). At just 250 km across, Chariklo is the smallest body so far found to have rings. There are two dense rings, with respective widths of about 7 and 3 km, → optical depth of 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii of 391 and 405 km (see F. Braga-Ribas et al. Nature, 2014, 26 March).

From Khariklo, the name of a nymph in Greek mythology, the wife of → Chiron and the daughter of → Apollo.

Charles' law
  قانون ِ شارل   
qânun-e Charles (#)

Fr.: loi de Charles   

The volume of a fixed mass of any gas increases for each degree rise in temperature by a constant fraction of the volume at 0° C, the pressure being constant throughout.

Named after Jacques Charles (1746-1823), French physicist, who first discovered the law, and who was responsible for the first balloon ascents using hydrogen.

Xâron (#)

Fr.: Charon   

The largest satellite of Pluto. It is about 1,040 km across, roughly half Pluto's diameter. Charon is unusual in that it is the largest moon with respect to its primary planet in the Solar System. Moreover, the Pluto-Charon system is extraordinary because the center of mass lies in open space between the two, a characteristic of a double planet system. Pluto and Charon are also tidally locked in a synchronous orbit. Pluto's rotational period is 6.39 Earth days. It takes 6.39 days for Charon to make one revolution around Pluto. Thus, the two bodies continuously face each other. Also called Pluto I.

In Gk. mythology, Xαρον (Charon) was a figure who ferried the dead across the river Styx into Hades (the underworld).

Charpak's detector
  آشکارگر ِ شرپک   
âškârgar-e Charpak

Fr.: détecteur de Charpak   

An elementary particle detector using a special apparatus capable of operating at high rates. The detector consists of an → array of many closely spaced parallel wires, or → anodes, in an enclosure filled with a carefully chosen gas. The wires, being placed between two → cathode plates, are under high voltage. Each wire acts as an independent → proportional counter. The particle that passes through the chamber will ionize surrounding gaseous atoms. The resulting ions and electrons are accelerated by the electric field around the wire, causing a localized cascade of ionization which brings about an electric current proportional to the energy of the detected particle. Previous detectors, such as the → bubble chamber, could record the tracks left by particles on photographic emulsions at the rate of only one or two per second. In comparison, the multiwire chamber records up to one million tracks per second in three dimensions with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimeter and moreover sends the data directly to a computer for analysis. The speed and precision of the multiwire chamber has revolutionized high-energy physics. For instance it was crucial in finding the predicted → W boson and → Z boson of the → electroweak interaction theory. Charpak's chamber also has applications in medicine, biology, and industry. Also called → multiwire proportional chamber.

In honor of Georges Charpak (1924-2010), a French physicist, who built the first detector of this type in 1968. He received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1992; → detector.


Fr.: chasme   

In astrogeology, long, narrow, steep sided depressions on planets and Moon, for example, Melas Chasma and Candor Chasma on Mars.

L. chasma, from Gk. khasma "yawning hollow, gulf," related to khaskein "to yawn," and thus to → chaos (1).

Karz "big fissure in a mountain," from Qâeni dialect.

Chelyabinsk meteor
  شهاب ِ چلیابینسک   
šahâb-e Chelyabinsk

Fr.: météore de Tcheliabinsk   

A → meteor exploded on February 15, 2013 over Chelyabinsk, southern Russia.The explosion occurred at a height of 20 km above Earth, releasing 500 kilotons → TNT equivalent of energy, approximately 30 times the yield of the nuclear bomb over Hiroshima. It caused a → shock wave that damaged 7,200 buildings in six Russian cities and injured some 1,500 people, mainly from flying glass. Later, about five tons of meteoritic material reached the ground, including a 650 kg → meteorite that was recovered by divers from the bottom of Lake Chebarkul, on the slopes of the southern Ural mountains. With an estimated initial mass of about 12,000-13,000 metric tons, and measuring about 20 m in diameter, it is the largest known natural object to have entered Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 → Tunguska event.

Chelyabinsk, a city in Russia, the capital of the Chelyabinsk region, on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains on the Miass River, 200 km south of Ekaterinburg and 1,879 km east of Moscow. The population of Chelyabinsk is about 1,183,000 (2015), the area, 530 sq. km; → meteor.

šimi- (#)

Fr.: chimi-   

A combining form meaning "chemical, chemically induced, chemistry," used in the formation of compound terms like → chemosynthesis. Also chem- (before a vowel) and chemo-.

Chemi- extracted from → chemical or → chemistry.

  شیمیایی، شیمیک   
šimiyâyi (#), šimik

Fr.: chimique   

Of, relating to, used in, or produced by means of chemistry.

From chemic "of alchemy," → chemistry + → -al.

Šimiyâyi, of or pertaining to šimichemistry.
Šimik, from šim- + -ik, → -ic.

chemical abundance
  فراوانی ِ شیمیایی   
farâvâni-ye šimiyâyi (#)

Fr.: abondance chimique   

The relative amount of a given → chemical element or → chemical compound with respect to another element or compound in a given sample.

chemical; → abundance.

chemical adsorption
  برشم ِ شیمیایی   
baršam-e šimiyâyi

Fr.: adsorption chimique   

Same as → chemisorption.

chemical; → adsorption.

chemical affinity
  کرونی ِ شیمیایی، ~ شیمیک   
karvani-ye šimiyâyi, ~ šimik

Fr.: affinité chimique   

The extent to which a chemical species, such as an atom or molecule, tends to combine with another to form a chemical compound.

chemical; → affinity.

chemical bond
  بند ِ شیمیک، ~ شیمیایی   
band-e šimik, ~ šimiyâyi

Fr.: liaison chimique   

A force by which chemical substances are held together by attraction of atoms to each other through sharing, as well as exchanging, of electrons.

chemical; → bond.

chemical composition
  همنهش ِ شیمیک   
hamneheš-e šimik

Fr.: composition chimique   

The identities, and relative abundances of the → chemical elements or → compounds that make up a substance.

chemical; → composition.

chemical compound
  همنات ِ شیمیایی   
hamnât-e šimiyâyi

Fr.: composé chimique   

A substance whose molecules are made up of atoms of at least two different elements.

chemical; → compound.

chemical element
  بن‌پار ِ شیمیایی، عنصر ِ ~   
bonpâr-e šimiyâyi (#), onsor-e ~ (#)

Fr.: élément chimique   

A substance which consists entirely of atoms of the same → atomic number and cannot be decomposed or changed into another substance using chemical means. Currently 118 chemical elements are known, the most abundant being → hydrogen. → periodic table.

chemical; → element.

chemical enrichment
  پرداری ِ شیمیایی   
pordâri-ye šimiyâyi

Fr.: enrichissement chimique   

The → process by which the relative → abundance of a given → chemical element or → species in an → astrophysical object is increased. For example the the → increase of the → heavy element content of the → interstellar medium due to → stellar evolution.

chemical; → enrichment.

chemical equation
  هموگش ِ شیمیایی   
hamugeš-e šimiyâyi

Fr.: équation chimique   

The symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the formulae of the → reactants are placed on the left and the formulae of → products on the right of an arrow.

chemical; → equation.

chemical evolution
  فرگشت ِ شیمیایی   
fargašt-e šimiyâyi (#)

Fr.: évolution chimique   

A cumulative change in the chemical properties, or more specifically, the relative abundances of chemical elements in an astrophysical system.

chemical; → evolution.

chemical mixing
  آمیزش ِ شیمیایی، ~ شیمیک   
âmizeš-e šimiyâyi, ~ šimik

Fr.: mélange chimique   

mixing process.

chemical; → mixing.

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