An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1322
circumstellar matter
  ماده‌ی ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
madde-ye pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: matière circumstellaire   

Dust, gas and plasma around stars, generally present in the form of stellar winds or nebulae ejected by the stars.

circumstellar; → matter.

circumstellar outflow
  استچان ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
ostacân-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: flot circumstellaire   

A stream of matter into the interstellar medium from a central star.

circumstellar; → outflow.

circumstellar shell
  پوسته‌ی ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
puste-ye pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: coquille circumstellaire   

A shell of dust, molecules, and neutral gas around an evolved star resulting from an intensive mass loss phase, such as the asymptotic giant branch phase for low- and intermediate mass stars and LBVs or supernovae for massive stars.

circumstellar; → shell.

circumzenithal arc
  کمان ِ پیراسرسویی   
kamân-e pirâsarsui

Fr.: arc circumzénithal   

A colorful halo centered on the zenith, appearing when the solar elevation above the horizon is not too high (< 32°).

circum-; → zenithal; → arc.

cislunar
  اینسوماهی، اینسومانگی   
insumâhi, insumângi

Fr.: cislunaire   

Lying between the Earth and the orbit of the Lune. → translunar.

L. cis, cistra "on this side," cf. Gk. ekeinos "that person," E. he, it, O.H.G. he.

Insuumâhi, insumângi, from insu "this side," from in "this" + su "side" + mâhi, mângilunar, → moon.

city
  شهر   
šahr (#)

Fr.: ville, cité   

Any large town or populous place.

M.E. cite, from O.Fr. cite "town, city," from L. civitas "citizenry; community," from civis "native, townsman;" related to L. cuna "cradle; bed;" Gk. kome "village;" Skt. śiva- "auspicious, dear;" O.E. ham "dwelling, house, village;" E. home; Ger. Heim (→ hamlet); Iranian dialects kiye "house, home;" Xonsâri ki "house;" Anâraki xiya, Tâti Karingân , Sangesari keh "house, home;" PIE *kei- "to lie; bed."

Šahr "city," from Mid.Pers. šahr "land, country, city;" O.Pers. xša- "to rule," pati-xša- "to have lordship over," Xšyāršan- "hero among kings" or "ruling over heroes" the proper name of the Achaemenid emperor Helenized as Xerxes, upari.xšay- "to rule over," xšāyaθiya- "king;" Mid.Pers. šâh "king," pâdixšâ(y) "ruler; powerful; authoritative;" Mod.Pers. šâh "king," pâdšâh "protecting lord, emperor, monarch, king," šâyestan "to be worth, suit, fit;" Av. xšā(y)- "to rule, have power," xšayati "has power, rules," xšāyô "power;" cf. Skt. ksā- "to rule, have power," ksáyati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property;" PIE base *tkeh- "to own, obtain."

civil
  شارین   
šârin

Fr.: civil   

Of or relating to citizens and their interrelations with one another or with the state.

M.E., from L. civilis "of or proper to a citizen," from civis "citizen, townsman," from PIE *kei- "to lie, homestead;" → city.

Šârin, from šâr "city," variant šahr; Mid.Pers. šahr "city, country, land" (O.Pers./Av. xšaθra- "kingship, kingdom," (Skt. ksatra-), from xšay-, "to rule;" cf. Skt. ksayati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property") + -in suffix of adjectives, relations and agent nouns (as in qamin "sorrowful," nušin "sweet, agreeable (thing)."

civil time
  زمان ِ شارین   
zamân-e šârin

Fr.: temps civil   

Mean solar time.

civil; → time.

civil twilight
  نیمتاب ِ شارین   
nimtâb-e šârin

Fr.: crépuscule civil   

The time between sunset or sunrise and the moment when the Sun's center lies 6° below the horizon. → astronomical twilight.

civil; → twilight.

civilization
  شارینش   
šârineš

Fr.: civilisation   

1) An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, knowledge, production, and legal organization has been reached. The people or nations that have reached such a state.
2) The act or process of civilizing or being civilized.

verbal noun of → civilize.

civilize
  شارینیدن   
šârinidan

Fr.: 1) civiliser; 2) se civiliser   

1) To cause to evolve out of a primitive state as to technical, moral, or intellectual matters.
2) To acquire the customs and manners of a civil community.

civil + → -ize.

civilized
  شارین‌مند، شارینیده   
šârinmand, šârinidé

Fr.: civilisé   

1) Of a society or country, having well-organized laws and rules about way of life.
2) Cultured, polite.

Past participle of → civilize.

claim
  ۱) زویه؛ ۲) زوییدن   
1) zuyé 2) zuyidan

Fr.: 1) réclamation, revendication; 2) réclamer, revendiquer   

1a) A demand for something as due; an assertion of a right or an alleged right.
1b) An assertion of something as a fact.
2a) To demand by or as by virtue of a right; demand as a right or as due.
2b) To assert and demand the recognition of (Dictionary.com).
See also: → acclaim, → declaim, → proclaim.

M.E. claimen, from O.Fr. clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain," from L. clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE *kele- "to shout;" cf. Skt. usakala "cock," literally "dawn-calling;" Middle Irish cailech "cock;" Gk. kalein "to call;" L. calare "to announce solemnly;" O.H.G. halan "to call;" O.E. hlowan "to make a noise like a cow;" Lith. kalba "language."

Zuyidan, from zu- "to call;" cf. Av. zu- "to call;" O.Pers. (+ pati) zu- "to proclaim;" Sogd. 'zw- "to call;" Pashtu zwag "noise, clamour;" Skt. havi "to call upon, invoke;" O.C.S. zvati; Slov. zvati; Toch. B kwā- "to call out to, invite" (Cheung 2007).

Clapeyron equation
  هموگش ِ کلاپرون   
hamugeš-e Clapeyron

Fr.: équation de Clapeyron   

An equation that relates the temperature and pressure dependence of phases in equilibrium with the heat interaction and volume change associated with a phase change: dP/dT = L/T ΔV, where dP/dT is the slope of the coexistence curve, L is the → latent heat, T is the temperature, and ΔV is the volume change of the phase transition.

Named after Émile Clapeyron (1799-1864), a French engineer and physicist, one of the founders of → thermodynamics; → equation.

clarification
  آرونش، رونه‌کرد   
âruneš, runekard

Fr.: clarification   

The action of making a statement or situation less confused and more comprehensible.

Verbal noun of → clarify.

clarify
  آرونیدن، رونه کردن   
ârunidan, runé kardan

Fr.: clarifier   

1) To make (an idea, statement, etc.) clear or intelligible; to free from ambiguity.
2) To remove solid matter from (a liquid); to make into a clear or pellucid liquid (Dictionary.com).

clear; → -fy.

class
  رده   
radé (#)

Fr.: classe   

General: A set, collection or group formed of members with certain attributes or traits in common.

From Fr. classe, from L. classis "summons, division of citizens for military draft, hence army, fleet, also class in general."

Radé "a line, series, row," from Mid.Pers. ratak "series, row," O.Pers. râd-, Av. raz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order."

Class 0
  رده‌ی ِ 0   
rade-ye 0

Fr.: Classe 0   

A low-mass → protostar deeply embedded in a → circumstellar dusty envelope and resulting from the → gravitational collapse of a dense → pre-stellar core. This stage in the process of star formation occurs typically a few 104 years after the onset of the collapse. Class 0 protostars represent the earliest stage of → young stellar objects. The → spectral energy distribution (SED) of a Class 0 object resembles a → blackbody spectrum at a temperature below ~ 15-30 K, peaking at → submillimeter wavelengths beyond 100 μm. The central protostar has not yet acquired its final mass, since → accretion is still going on, and the envelope (detected in submillimeter wavelengths) is more massive than the central protostellar mass. Moreover, these objects show powerful → bipolar ejections of material in the form of collimated → carbon monoxide (CO)outflows which distinguish them from the pre-stellar phase of star formation. The subsequent evolution of a Class 0 is a → Class I.

class; → zero.

Class I
  رده‌ی ِ I   
rade-ye I

Fr.: Classe I   

A protostellar phase resulting from the evolution of a → Class 0 object typically a few 105 years after the beginning of the → gravitational collapse. The protostar grows in mass due to → accretion from the envelope, which becomes less massive than the protostar. An → accretion disk forms around the protostar through which mass is transferred to the central object. The → spectral energy distribution (SED) changes with respect to that of a Class 0. The peak of the SED shifts to → far infrared wavelengths (below 100 μm) as the temperature of the dust rises. Emission from both the envelope (about 100 K) and the thick disk (a few 100 K) are observed. The SED has a positive → spectral index (αIR > 0), so that the bulk of the → luminosity (still due to accretion) emerges at the longer infrared wavelengths. Moreover, → bipolar outflows and → jets are observed which are generally less powerful than those in Class 0 objects. Class I objects evolve into → Class II.

class; → one.

Class II
  رده‌ی ِ II   
rade-ye II

Fr.: Classe II   

A stage in the evolution of low-mass → protostars resulting from a → Class I object about 106 years after the initial → gravitational collapse. Most of the envelope has been removed and the embedded object becomes visible at infrared and optical wavelengths. At this stage, the bulk of the material has → accreted onto the central object. A flattened → circumstellar disk or → protoplanetary disk is present in which material moves inward at a decreasing rate. The disk contributes only about 1% of the total mass of the system. Material from a remaining envelope may still accrete onto the outer parts of the disk. The → spectral energy distribution (SED) at → near infrared wavelengths is dominated by the emission of the central protostar and typically peaks around 2 μm, corresponding to temperatures around 1000 to 2000 K. At longer wavelengths an → infrared excess is observed, originating from the disk. The SED has a negative → spectral index (-1.5 < αIR < 0). Estimated disk masses and → accretion rates are 10-3 to 10-1 → solar masses and 10-8 solar masses per year, respectively. This stage initiates the → pre-main sequence stage of a star. The object is referred to as a → classical T Tauri star. The stellar → photosphere is revealed at optical wavelengths accompanied by strong → emission lines and photometric variability, but the infrared luminosity is far larger than can be explained by the photometric temperature and radius.

class; → two.

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