An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1327
copper
  مس   
mes (#)

Fr.: cuivre   

A malleable, ductile, reddish metal with a bright luster that is known from antiquity, and has been mined for some 5000 years; symbol Cu. → Atomic number 29; → atomic weight 63.546; → melting point 1,083.4°C; → boiling point 2,567°C; → specific gravity 8.96 at 20°C. Copper is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity and is widely used for various purposes, either pure or in numerous alloys such as bronze and brass in combination with → tin and → zinc. Its → radioactive isotopes have half-lives from 5.10 min (66Cu) to 61.0 hr (67Cu). Copper is mostly created inside → massive stars, via the → s-process, after they leave the → main sequence.

M.E. coper; O.E. coper, copor; cf. O.N. koparr, Ger. Kupfer, the original Germaic word from L.L. cuprum, contraction of L. Cyprium (æs) "Cyprian (metal)," referriing to the island which was the primary source of copper for the Romans, after Gk. Kyprios "Cypress," literally "land of cypress trees."

Mes "copper," of unknown origin; maybe related to Skt. māsaka- "a weight of gold;" Pali māsa- "a small coin, of copper, of very low value;" Prakrit māsa-.

copy
  پچن   
pacen (#)

Fr.: copie   

A reproduction, imitation; a thing made to be like another.

M.E. copie, from O.Fr. copie, from M.L. copia "reproduction, transcript," from L. copia "plenty," from → com- "with" + ops "power, wealth."

Pacen, from Mid.Pers. pacên "copy," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *pati-cak- "strike against, beat through," i.e. "stamp;" from *pati- + *cak- "to strike;" compare with Ger. Durchschlag "copy" literally "striking through;" related to câk "fissure."

copyright
  پچن-راشن، داتار-راشن، راشن ِ داتار   
pacen-râšan, dâtâr-râšan, râšan-e dâtâr

Fr.: droit d'auteur   

The legal right of the owner of intellectual property (such as a book, play, film, photograph, or piece of music). Simply put, copyright is the right to copy.

copy; → right; → author.

cord
  تار، ریسمان   
târ (#), rismân (#)

Fr.: corde   

1) A string or thin rope made of several strands braided, twisted, or woven together.
2) A cordlike structure (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. corde "rope, string, cord," from L. chorda "string of a musical instrument, cat-gut," from Gk. khorde "string, catgut, chord, cord," from PIE root *ghere- "intestine" (etymonline.com).

string.

Cordelia
  کردلیا   
Kordeliyâ

Fr.: Cordelia   

The innermost of → Uranus' known satellites. Cordelia has a diameter of 26 km and orbits Uranus at a mean distance of 49,752 km. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 in 1986. Cordelia is the inner → shepherd moon for Uranus's Epsilon ring. → Ophelia.

Named after the daughter of Lear in Shakespeare's play King Lear.

core
  مغزه   
maqzé

Fr.: cœur, noyau   

1) The central region of a star in which energy is generated by → thermonuclear reactions.
2) The central region of a planet or satellite which has a → differentiated interior.
3) The innermost and densest layer of the Earth, lying from 2890 km to 6360 km beneath the surface. It consists primarily of the metals iron and nickel, and is divided into the → outer core, which is believed to be liquid, and the → inner core, which is believed to be solid.
4) The central region of a → star cluster.
5) A flat → density profile representing the distribution of stars in the central region of a galaxy. Cores are found in high mass galaxies. They are believed to result from the interaction of a central → supermassive black hole with another merging black hole.
6) A progenitor of → protostars. → dense core.
7) → reactor core.

Probably from O.Fr. cœur "core of fruit," literally "heart," from L. cor "heart," cf. Gk. kardia: P.Gmc. *khertan- (O.E. heorte, E. heart, Ger. Herz, Bret. kreiz "middle"), Skt. hrd-; Av. zərəd-; Mid.Pers. dil; Mod.Pers. del; Baluci zird; Arm. sirt; PIE base *kerd- "heart".

Maqzé, from maqz "kernel; brain; marrow" + nuance suffix . Mod.Pers. maqz from Mid.Pers. mazg "brain; marrow," Av. mazga- "marrow; brain" cf. Skt. majján- "marrow," P.Gmc. *mazga-, O.E. mearg "marrow," Lith. smagenes "brain," O.H.G. mark "marrow," PIE base *mozgho- "marrow, brain".

core collapse
  رمبش ِ مغزه   
rombeš-e maqzé

Fr.: effondrement de cœur   

The collapse of a → massive star's core at the → final → stages of its → evolution when the core consists entirely of → iron (→ iron core). Since iron cannot burn in → nuclear reaction, no energy is generated to support the → gravitational collapse. The result will be a → supernova explosion of → Type Ib, → Type Ic, or → Type II. See also → core-collapse supernova.

core; → collapse.

core elliptical galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بیضی‌گون ِ مغزه‌دار   
kahkešân-e beyzigun-e maqzedâr

Fr.: galaxie elliptique à coeur   

An → elliptical galaxy that displays a → surface brightness profile with a distinct break from a steep outer slope to a shallower inner → cusp. Core profiles mainly occur in very luminous elliptical galaxies and are considered the result of dissipation-less → mergers of two galaxies that have central → supermassive black holes (S. P. Rusli et al., 2013, AJ 146, 160).

core; → elliptical; → galaxy.

core mass function (CMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ مغزه   
karyâ-ye jerm-e maqzé

Fr.: fonction de masse des cœurs   

The mass distribution of → pre-stellar cores in → star-forming regions. The CMF is usually represented by dN/dM = Mα, where dM is the mass interval, dN the number of cores in that interval, and α takes different values in different mass ranges. In the case of → low-mass stars, it is found that the CMF resembles the → Salpeter function, although deriving the masses and radii of pre-stellar cores is not straightforward. The observational similarity between the CMF and the → initial mass function (IMF) was first put forth by Motte et al. (1988, A&A, 336, 150), and since then many other samples of dense cores have been presented in this context. For example, Nutter & Ward-Thompson (2007, MNRAS 374, 1413), using SCUBA archive data of the Orion star-forming regions, showed that the CMF can be fitted to a three-part → power law consistent with the form of the stellar IMF. Recent results, obtained using observations by the → Herschel Satellite, confirm the similarity between the CMF and IMF with better statistics (Könyves et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L106; André et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L102). Moreover, these works show that the CMF has a → lognormal distribution (i.e. dN/dlog M follows a → Gaussian form against log M), as is the case for the IMF at low masses (below about 1 solar mass).

core; → mass; → function.

core overshooting
  فرازد ِ مغزه   
farâzad-e maqzé

Fr.: dépassement du cœur   

convective overshooting.

core; → overshooting.

core profile
  فراپال ِ مغزه   
farâpâl-e maqzé

Fr.: profil de cœur   

A → profile representing the number density of stars in the → core of a galaxy.

core; → profile.

core-collapse supernova
  اَبَر-نو‌اختر ِ رمبش ِ مغزه   
abar-now-axtar-e rombeš-e maqzé

Fr.: supernova à effondrement de coeur   

A supernova arising from the → core collapse of a → massive star. Same as → Type Ib, → Type Ic, or → Type II supernova.

core; → collapse; → supernova.

core-dominated quasar
  کو‌آسار ِ مغزه چیره   
kuâsâr-e maqzé ciré

Fr.: quasar dont l'émission de cœur domine   

A → radio-loud quasar in which the central source is enhanced by → relativistic beaming and characterized by a → flat  → spectrum. It has been conjectured that this phenomenon is an → orientation effect. If a radio-loud quasar is seen along its → jet, it will appear as a core-dominated source. See also → lobe-dominated quasar.

core; → dominate; → quasar.

core-halo galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مغزه-هاله   
kahkešân-e maqzé-hâlé

Fr.: galaxie cœur-halo   

A radio galaxy characterized by an emission "halo" surrounding a more intense "core". About 20% of the known extended radio sources are of the core-halo type.

core; → halo; → galaxy.

coreshine
  مغزه‌تاب   
maqze-tâb

Fr.: éclat de cœur   

The → mid-infrared radiation which is scattered by unusually large → dust grains in the denser core regions of → molecular clouds. It occurs between 3 and 5 μm, when the light from nearby stars undergoes → scattering by the grains provided that they are about 1 μm in size, instead of 0.1 μm, as previously thought. Coreshine, which was detected in Spitzer IRAC data, is a widespread astronomical phenomenon. It is found across dozens of → dark clouds in the Galaxy and during all the phases of the → low-mass star formation (Pagani et al. 2010, Science, 329, 1622). See also → cloudshine.

core; → shine.

Coriolis acceleration
  شتاب ِ کوریولیس   
šetâb-e Coriolis (#)

Fr.: accélération de Coriolis   

The apparent acceleration corresponding to the → Coriolis force. It is the acceleration which, when added to the acceleration of an object relative to a rotating → reference frame and to its → centrifugal acceleration, gives the acceleration of the object relative to a fixed reference frame. Coriolis acceleration equals 2ω x v, where ω is the → angular velocity of the rotating reference frame and v is the radial velocity of a particle relative to the center of the rotating reference frame.

Coriolis effect; → force.

Coriolis effect
  اسکر ِ کوریولیس   
oskar-e Koriolis

Fr.: effet Coriolis   

The apparent → deflection of a body in motion with respect to the Earth, as seen by an → observer on the Earth, caused by the → Earth's rotation. Thus, a projectile fired due north from any point on the northern hemisphere will land slightly east of its target (deflection to the right). This involves two factors: 1) the eastward velocity of Earth's surface decreases from the → equator to the → poles, and 2) when an object starts to move north or south without being firmly connected to the ground it maintains its initial eastward speed (conservation of → angular momentum). Hence, an object travelling away from the equator will be heading east faster than the ground and will seem to be forced east. On the other hand, a ball fired in the northern hemisphere toward the equator deflects to the west. As for the southern hemisphere, a ball fired southward will deflect East. The projectile is not subject to this effect only on the equator, when it is thrown in an east-west direction. The Coriolis effect is therefore greater at higher → latitudes and smaller near the equator. This effect is of paramount importance to the large-scale → atmospheric circulation, the development of storms, and the sea-breeze circulation. In low pressure systems, i.e. zones where air ascends, the air is less dense than its surroundings and this creates a center of low atmospheric pressure. Winds blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, and so the surface winds would tend to blow toward a low pressure center. But, because of the Coriolis effect, they are deflected. In the northern hemisphere they are deflected toward the right, and fail to arrive at the low pressure center, but instead circulate around it → counterclockwise. In the southern hemisphere the circulation around a low pressure center would be → clockwise. Regarding high pressure systems in the northern hemisphere, a general clockwise rotation is created around the center. Same as the → Coriolis force. See also → geostrophic wind, → geostrophic flow.

Named after Gaspard Gustave Coriolis (1792-1843), French engineer and mathematician who first described this effect; → effect.

Coriolis force
  نیروی ِ کوریولیس   
niru-ye Coriolis (#)

Fr.: force de Coriolis   

An apparent, rather than real, force exerted on a body when it moves in a rotating → reference frame. Same as the → Coriolis effect.

Coriolis effect; → force.

Coriolis frequency
  بسامد ِ کوریولیس   
basâmad-e Coriolis

Fr.: fréquence de Coriolis   

A quantity defined as f = 2ω.sinθ, where ω is the Earth's → angular velocity, 2π/T, T is the rotation period of the Earth (→ sidereal day), and θ is the → latitude. Also called the → Coriolis parameter. This frequency occurs often in oceanographic studies. If an → iceberg is floating in a frictionless sea, and is given a push and allowed to move freely, it will travel in a circle of radius U/f, where U is the initial speed imparted by the push. This circle is called an inertial circle.

Coriolis effect; → frequency.

Coriolis theorem
  فربین ِ کوریولیس   
farbin-e Coriolis

Fr.: théorème de Coriolis   

The → absolute acceleration of a point P, which is moving with respect to a local → reference frame that is also in motion, is equal to the vector sum of:
a) the acceleration P would have if it were fixed to the moving system;
b) the acceleration of P with respect to the local moving system; and
c) a compound supplementary → Coriolis acceleration.

Coriolis effect; → theorem.

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