An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1322
Corona Borealis
  تاج ِ هودری، ~ شمالی   
tâj-e hudari, ~ šomâli

Fr.: Couronne boréale   

The Northern Crown. A small but prominent northern → constellation that lies east of → Arcturus, between → Boötes and → Hercules, and comprises a distinctive arc formed by the stars seven stars. Abbreviation: CrB; genitive: Coronae Borealis.

corona; L. borealis "northern."

  تاجنگار، هورتاجنگار   
tâjnegâr (#), hurtâjnegâr (#)

Fr.: coronographe   

An instrument which, when used in a telescope, produces an artificial eclipse, permitting the study of the → solar corona without a total eclipse of the Sun. It was invented in 1930 by the French astronomer Bernard Lyot (1897-1952).

From → corona + → -graph.

  تاجنگاری، تاجنگاریک   
tâjnegâri, tâjnegârik

Fr.: coronographique   

Of, or relating to → coronagraphy.

coronagraphy; → -ic..


Fr.: coronograhie   

A technique used to observe a relatively dim object (like an → exoplanet) lying close to an outshining bright source (such as star). This is done by blocking the bright object, in the same way the → solar corona is observed using a → coronagraph.

coronagraph + suffix -y.

  تاجی، هورتاجی   
tâji (#), hurtâji (#)

Fr.: coronal   

Of or relating to a → corona.

Adj., from → corona + → -al.

coronal condensation
  چگالش ِ تاجی   
cagâleš-e tâji

Fr.: condensation coronale   

A part of the → solar corona where the gas density and the temperature are higher than in its vicinity. The coronal condensations are visible on the solar limb, above → sunspot groups. Images in X-rays and those supplied by → coronagraphs in white light reveal that such condensations consist of structures in the form of nodes, underlining the corona magnetic field (M.S.: SDE).

coronal; → condensation.

coronal features
  آرنگ‌های ِ هورتاجی   
âranghâ-ye hurtâji

Fr.: motifs coronaux   

Several phenomena occurring in the Sun's corona, such as a → helmet streamer, → polar plume, → coronal loop, → coronal hole.

coronal; → feature.

coronal gas
  گاز ِ تاجی   
gâz-e tâji

Fr.: gaz coronal   

A component of the → interstellar medium in the Galaxy which appears as pockets of gas at temperatures of over one million degrees, but extremely low densities of 104 atoms per cubic centimeter. The hot coronal gas is believed to be material blown out of violent supernova explosions. It is called "coronal gas", after a similarity with the hot gas in → solar corona.

coronal; → gas.

coronal hole
  سوراخ ِ هورتاجی   
surâx-e hurtâji

Fr.: trou coronal   

An area in the → solar corona which appears dark in X-rays and ultraviolet light. The gas density in these areas are very low, about 100 times less than that of coronal → active regions. The magnetic field lines in a coronal hole extend out into → interplanetary space rather than returning to the Sun's surface, as they do in other parts of the Sun (→ open magnetic field line). Ionized hot gas can escape easily along such a path, and this brings about high speed → solar wind streams.

coronal; → hole.

coronal line
  خط ِ هورتاجی   
xatt-e hurtâji

Fr.: raie coronale   

An → emission line in the spectrum of the → solar corona caused by highly ionized metal ions; especially those of iron, such as the red and green lines at 6375 Å and 5303 Å [Fe X] (Fe9+ ion) and [Fe XIV] (Fe13+ ion), respectively. From their discovery in 1870 until 1939, it was believed that these → forbidden lines would be due to an unknown element, called → coronium. Ultraviolet and X-ray coronal lines are also detectable in stars.

coronal; → line.

coronal loop
  گردال ِ هورتاجی   
gerdâl-e hurtâj

Fr.: boucle coronale   

An arc-like structure in the Sun's → corona that is found around → sunspots and in → active regions. These structures are associated with the closed magnetic field lines that connect magnetic regions on the solar surface. The loops are sometimes as high as 10,000 km with their two ends situated in photosphere regions of opposite magnetic polarity. This implies that the coronal loops are tubes of magnetic flux filled with hot plasma. They last for days or weeks but most change quite rapidly.

coronal; → loop.

coronal mass ejection (CME)
  اشانش ِ جرم از هورتاج   
ešâneš-e jerm az hurtâj

Fr.: éjection de masse coronale   

A huge eruption of material from regions of the solar corona in which the magnetic field is closed, but which suffer an extremely energetic disruption. Over the course of several hours up to 10,000 billion kg of this material is ejected into → interplanetary space with a a speed of as high as 3000 km/s. CMEs are most spectacularly observed by a white light coronagraph located outside Earth's atmosphere. Such observations from Skylab in the early 1970's were the first to reveal this phenomenon. CME's disrupt the flow of the → solar wind and can produce intense electromagnetic disturbances that can severely damage satellites and disrupt power grids on Earth. When these ejections reach the Earth, they give rise to → geomagnetic storms. The frequency varies with the → solar cycle; during solar minimum they come at a rate of about one per week, and during maximum there is an average of about two or three per day. See also → interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME).

coronal; → mass; → ejection.

coronal rain
  باران ِ هورتاجی   
bârân-e hurtâji

Fr.: pluie coronale   

Material that condenses in the Sun's corona and appears to rain down into the chromosphere, as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots.

coronal; → rain.

coronal streamer
  درفشک ِ هورتاجی   
derafšak-e hurtâji

Fr.: grand jet coronal   

A bright, narrow stream of particles traveling through the Sun's corona, visible in images taken with a coronagraph or during a total solar eclipse. Coronal streamers represent the most outwardly extended structures in the solar corona and result from the interaction between the solar slow wind and the large-scale magnetic field. → helmet streamer.

coronal; → streamer.


Fr.: coronium   

A hypothetical chemical element once thought to be at the origin of the → coronal lines seen during a solar → total eclipse

From coron-, from → corona + → -ium


Fr.: CoRot   

An astronomical satellite led by the French Space Agency (CNES) in conjunction with the European Space Agency (ESA) and other international partners. Launched on 27 December 2006, its two objectives are to search for → extrasolar planets with short → orbital periods, particularly those of large terrestrial size, and to perform → asteroseismology by measuring solar-like oscillations in stars. Corot is the first spacecraft dedicated to extrasolar planet detection. It is equipped with a 27-cm diameter afocal telescope and four CCD cameras sensitive to tiny variations of the light intensity from stars. Corot detected its first extrasolar planet, Corot-1b, in May 2007. Mission flight operations were originally scheduled to end 2.5 years from launch but they have been extended to January 2010.

CoRot, acronym from → COnvection, → ROtation, and planetary → Transits, chosen for its similarity to the name of the French painter Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796-1875), the first of the great modern landscapists, who marked a significant departure from academic tradition and strongly influenced the development of landscape painting in the 19th century.


Fr.: être en corotation   

To rotate jointly with or at the same speed as another rotating body.

co-; → rotate.

corotating interaction region (CIR)
  ناحیه‌ی ِ اندرژیرش ِ هم‌چرخنده   
nâhiye-ye andaržireš-e hamcarxandé

Fr.: région d'interaction en corotation   

A spiral-shaped density enhancement formed around a star when fast stellar winds collide with slower material. This large-scale wind structure can extend from the stellar surface to possibly several tens of stellar radii. The CIRs can be produced by intensity irregularities at the stellar surface, such as dark and bright spots, magnetic loops and fields, or non-radial pulsations. The surface intensity variations alter the radiative wind acceleration locally, which creates streams of faster and slower wind material. CIRs are responsible for the → discrete absorption components seen in some ultraviolet → resonance lines of → hot stars (S. R. Cranmer & S. P. Owocki, 1996, ApJ 462, 469).

corotate; → interaction; → region.


Fr.: corotation   

The act of corotating.

Verbal noun of → corotate.

corotation radius
  شعاع ِ هم‌چرخش   
šoâ'-e ham-carxeš

Fr.: rayon de corotation   

1) In the → X-wind model of → accretion, the distance from the star where the → centrifugal force on a particle corotating with the star balances the → gravitational attraction; in other words, where the → accretion disk rotates at the same → angular velocity as the star.
2) In a → spiral galaxy, the place where the spiral → pattern speed has the same velocity as the → rotation curve of the → galactic disk. In the frame rotating with the wave, particles inside this radius will appear to revolve in the direction of the frame rotation (prograde) while outside this corotation radius, they will be retrograde.

corotation; → radius.

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