An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1327
siyâno- (#)

Fr.: cyano-   

1) A combining form meaning "blue, dark blue," used in the formation of compound words. Also cyan- before a vowel.
2) A combining form representing → cyanide in the formation of chemical compounds.

From Gk. kyanos "dark blue, lapis lazuli," because of its presence in the Prussian blue, Fe7(CN)18, a dye which was first accidentally made around 1706, by heating substances containing iron and carbon and nitrogen.

siyânožen (#)

Fr.: cyanogène   

1) A colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with a smell of bitter almonds. Chemical formula: C2N2. It was discovered by Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) in 1848.
2) A univalent radical, CN, found in simple and complex cyanide compounds. CN exists in → interstellar medium and is one of the main molecules detected in → comets. It has energy levels at 113 and 227 GHz (2.6 and 1.3 mm wavelength) above the ground level.

cyano- + → -gen.

cyanogen band
  باند ِ سیانوژن   
bând-e siyânožen (#)

Fr.: bande de cyanogène   

An → absorption band of molecular origin characterizing the spectra of → late-type stars (G0 and later, e.g. → S star). → Cyanogen absorption is an important → luminosity criterion for → low-mass stars, and is more pronounced in → giant stars than in → dwarf stars of the same → spectral type.

cyanogen; → band.

  چرخ، چرخه   
carx (#), carxé (#)

Fr.: cycle   

1) A sequence of changes that are repeated regularly, such as revolution, rotation, vibration, oscillation, wave motion.
2) One complete set of changes in the value of a → periodic function during one period.
3) A period of time at the end of which an event or sequence of events are repeated.
carbon cycle, → Carnot cycle, → CNO cycle, → hydrologic cycle, → Metonic cycle, → Milankovich cycle, → solar activity cycle, → solar cycle, → solar magnetic cycle, → sunspot cycle, → epicycle, → recycle.
4) In → graph theory, a closed → path with at least one → edge.

From L.L. cyclus, from Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel," from PIE base *kw(e)-kwl-o- "wheel, circle," from *kwel- "to turn, move around, sojourn, dwell," (cf. Av. caxra- "wheel," caraiti "he moves, approaches;" Mod.Pers. carx "wheel;" Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. polos "axis of a sphere," polein "move around;" L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "awheel").

Carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart," Mid.Pers. chr "wheel," Parthian cxr "wheel," Ossetic, Khotanese calx "wheel," Av. caxra- "wheel," cognate with Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel," as above. Carxé from carx + nuance suffix .

carxe-yi (#)

Fr.: cyclique   

Of, pertaining to, or constituting a cycle or cycles.

cycle; → -ic.

cyclic coordinate
  همارای ِ نادیده‌انگاشته   
hamârâ-ye nâdidé engâshté

Fr.: coordonnée ignorée   

Same as → ignorable coordinate.

cyclic; → coordinate.

cyclic group
  گروه ِ چرخه‌ای   
goruh-e carxe-yi

Fr.: groupe cyclic   

A group in which each element can be expressed as a power of any other element.

cyclic; → group.

cyclic process
  فراروند ِ چرخه‌ای   
farâravand-e carxe-yi

Fr.: processus cyclique   

Any sequence of changes in a → thermodynamic system that returns the system into its → initial  → state.

cyclic; → process.

cyclic quadrilateral
  چهاربر ِ چرخه‌ای   
cahârbar-e carxe-yi

Fr.: quadrilatère cyclique   

A quadrilateral in which all four vertices lie on the circumference of a circle.

cyclic; → quadrilateral.

carxzâd (#)

Fr.: cycloïde   

The curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle that rolls along a straight line. The cycloid has a → cusp at every point where it touches the straight line. The distance between cusps is 2πR, where R is the radius of the circle.

Cycloid, from Gk. kykloeides "circular," fr. kyklos "circle," → cycle + eides "form," → -oid.

Carxzâd, from carx "wheel, circle," → cycle + zâd "produced, created, born," from zâdan "give birth" (Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," Gk. gignesthai "to become, happen" L. gignere "to beget," gnasci "to be born," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

carxand (#)

Fr.: cyclone   

Any circulatory wind system in the atmosphere in which the motion is anticlockwise in the northern hemisphere (that is in the same sense as that of Earth) and clockwise in the southern hemisphere, around a center of low pressure.

From Gk. kyklon "moving in a circle, whirling around," pr.p. of kykloun "move in a circle, whirl," from kyklos "circle," cognate with Pers. carxcycle.

Carxand "moving in a circle," from carxidanrotate, from carx, → cycle.


Fr.: cyclonique   

Having a sense of rotation about the local vertical the same as that of the Earth's rotation. More specifically, as viewed from above, → counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, → clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere, and undefined at the equator. The opposite of → anticyclonic (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

cyclone; → -ic.

siklotron (#)

Fr.: cyclotron   

An → accelerator in which charged subatomic particles generated at a central source are accelerated to acquire energies up to several tens of millions of → electron-volts. The cyclotron consists of two flat, semicircular metal boxes or electrodes, called dees or D's because of their shape. An alternating electric field between the dees continuously accelerates the particles from one dee to the other, while the magnetic field bends their direction guiding them in a circular path. As the speed of the particles increases, so does the radius of their path, and the particles spiral outward. See also → cyclotron frequency, → synchrotron.

From cyclo- a combining form meaning → cycle + → -tron.

cyclotron frequency
  بسامد ِ سیکلوترون   
basâmad-e siklotron

Fr.: fréquence cyclotron   

The frequency with which a → non-relativistic particle of charge q and mass m turns in a cyclotron with → uniform magnetic field B. The equality of the → centripetal force to the → Lorentz force leads to the expression: by: fcycl = qB/2πm. For → relativistic case, the frequency is smaller and is called → synchrotron frequency.

cyclotron; → frequency.

cyclotron radius
  شعاع ِ سیکلوترون   
šo'â'-e siklotron

Fr.: rayon de cyclotron   

Same as → Larmor radius.

cyclotron; → radius.

Mâkiyân (#)

Fr.: Cygne   

The Swan. A prominent northern → constellation that lies in the glowing band of the Milky way, east of Lyra and north of Vulpecula, and represents a swan. The brightest stars of Cygnus form a cross, so it is also known as the Northern Cross. Abbreviation: Cyg, genitive: Cygni.

From L. cygnus "swan," from Gk. kuknos.

Mâkiyân "a hen, fowl."

Cygnus A
  ماکیان A   
Mâkiyân A

Fr.: Cygnus A   

The strongest extragalactic radio source in the sky approximately 109 light-years away in the → constellation  → Cygnus. Also called 3C 405.


Cygnus loop
  گردال ِ ماکیان   
gerdâl-e mâkiyân

Fr.: boucle du Cygne   

A large supernova remnant in the → constellation  → Cygnus, some 80 light-years across, lying about 2,500 light-years away. The loop is expanding at over 100 km/s and is thought to be about 30 000 years old.

Cygnus, → loop.

Cygnus OB association
  آهزش ِ OB ماکیان   
âhazeš-e OB Mâkiyân

Fr.: association OB Cygne   

One of nine → OB associations located in the Cygnus → constellation. The central association, → Cygnus OB2, is the most famous and the youngest of the Cygnus region. (L. Mahy et al. 2013, astro-ph/1301.0500 and references therein).

Cygnus; → OB star; → association.

Cygnus OB2 (Cyg OB2)
   OB2 ماکیان   
OB2 Mâkiyân

Fr.: Cygnus OB2   

The nearest example of a → massive star region of → star formation, containing 65 known → O-type stars and hundreds of → B-type stars. Cygnus OB2 lies at a distance of 1.45 → kpc. It is the central association, the most famous, and one of the youngest of the Cygnus region. Cyg OB2 possibly has two → populations with ages of 3.5-5 Myr, while the → O stars seem to belong to a younger population, aged about 2 Myr.

Cygnus; → OB association; 2 because there are several OB associations in Cygnus; → Cygnus OB association.

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