An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 753
data bank
  بانک ِ داده‌ها، داده بانک   
bânk-e dâdehâ, dâdé bânk (#)

Fr.: banque de données   

A set of data related to a given subject and organized in such a way that it can be consulted by users.

data; bank, from M.Fr. banque, from O.It. banca "table," because of "the moneylender's exchange table," from P.Gmc. *bankiz (O.H.G. bank "bench").

Bânk, from Fr. banque, see above; dâdehâ, plural of dâdédatum.

data mining
  کان‌کاوی ِ داده‌ها، داده کاوی   
kânkâvi-ye dâde-hâ, dâdé kâvi

Fr.: exploration de données   

The process of digging through large quantities of raw data stored in → databases to uncover new characteristics, patterns, and correlations using various automatic or semi-automatic statistical/mathematical means.

data; mining, from mine, M.E., from O.Fr. mine, probably from a Celtic source.

Kânkâvi, literally "digging mine," from kân "mine," related to kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kan, qn; O.Pers. ka(n) "to dig;" Av. kan- "to dig;" cf. Skt. khan- "to dig") + kâvi from kâvidan/kâftan "to split; to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" cf. Gk. skaptein "to dig;" L. scabere "to scratch, rub").

data model
  مدل ِ داده‌ها   
model-e dâde-hâ

Fr.: modèle de données   

An abstract entity that describes the structure of → database by including the formal description of the information system used in the database.

data; → model.

data number (DN)
  شمار ِ داده‌ها   
šomâr-e dâdehâ

Fr.:   

Unit of the analog-to-digital conversion system of a CCD apparatus. For example a 16 bit system may use a maximum of 65536 DN. The acronym ADU, for analog-to-digital unit, is also used.

data; → number.

data processing
  داده آمایی   
dâdé âmâyi (#)

Fr.: traitement de données   

Systematic operations on data, such as handling, merging, sorting, and computing.

data; → processing.

data processor
  داده آما   
dâdé âmâ (#)

Fr.: processeur de donées   

A machine for handling data in → data processing.

data; → processor.

data reduction
  بازهازش ِ داده‌ها   
bâzhâzeš-e dâdehâ

Fr.: réduction de données   

The process of converting crude observational data into usable information for scientific interpretation, by correcting, rearranging, ordering, and simplifying.

data; → reduction.

data structure
  ساختار ِ داده‌ها   
sâxtâr-e dâdehâ

Fr.: structure de données   

A → method or → format for organizing and storing data. Any data structure is designed to organize data to suit a specific purpose so that it can be accessed and worked with in appropriate ways. In computer programming, a data structure may be selected or designed to store data for the purpose of working on it with various algorithms.

data; → structure.

database
  پایگاه ِ داده‌ها   
pâygâh-e dâdehâ (#)

Fr.: base de données   

A combined and coordinated set of data that supplies information for a specific purpose in a variety of forms.

data; → base.

date
  گاهداد   
gâhdâd

Fr.: date   

A particular day, month, and year at which some event happened or will happen.

Date, from O.Fr. date, from M.L. data, from datus "given," p.p. of dare "to give, grant, offer," from PIE base *do- "to give" (cf. Pers. dâdan "to give," as below). The Roman convention of closing a document by writing "given" and the day and month (meaning "given to messenger") led to data becoming a term for "the time stated."

Gâhdâd, from gâh "time" (Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come") + dâd "given," as in Latin; p.p. of dâdan "to give" (Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give," O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," Av. dadāiti "he gives," Skt. dadáti "he gives," Gk. didomi "I give;" akin to L. data, as above); cf. Mid.Pers., Mod.Pers. dâd "year, age, period of life," Lori, Laki dâ(d) "age," homdâ "of equal age."
Note: In current Persian a single term, târix (تاریخ), is used for two different but related concepts: date and history. This may be confusing, → history (تاریخ).

dating
  سن‌یابی   
senn yâbi (#)

Fr.: datation   

Use of appropriate techniques to estimate the age of geological specimens or astronomical objects such as meteorites.

Verbal noun of date, from O.Fr. date, from M.L. → data.

Sen yâbi, from Ar. sen "age" + yâbi verbal noun of yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire," Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain," Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain," Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain," Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached," Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains," Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to," L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."

dative case
  کاته‌ی ِ برایی   
kâte-ye barâyi

Fr.: cas datif   

The form of a word (in Latin and other inflected languages) indicating the noun or pronoun for which an action happens or a quality exists. In English loosely used for → indirect object (for example, him in Give him the book).

From L. casus dativus ("case for giving"), a translation of Gk. dotike ptosis ("inflection for giving"), from dativus "pertaining to giving," from datus "given" (from PIE root *do- "to give"), → datum; → case.

Kâte, → case; barâyi, adj. of barâye, "→ because of," "→ for."

datum
  ۱) داده؛ ۲) داده‌بن؛ ۳) فرازبن   
1) dâdé (#); 2) dâdebon; 3) farâzbon

Fr.: donnée   

1) A single piece of information, as a fact, statistic, or code.
2) Any numerical or geometric quantity which serves as a reference or a base for measurement of other quantities.
3) Surveying: Any basis level (surface, line, or point) used as a reference in measuring elevations.

L. datum "given," neuter p.p. of dare "to give, offer," cf. Av. and O.Pers. dā- "to give, grant, yield," Av. dadāiti "he gives," Skt. dadáti "he gives," Gk. didomi "I give," PIE base *do- "to give."

Dâdé "given," p.p. of dâdan "to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give," O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," akin to L. data, as above.
Dâdebon, from dâdé "datum," + bon "basis, base," → element.
Farâzbon, from farâz "above, up, upon," → height, + bon "basis, base," as above.

daughter
  دختر   
doxtar (#)

Fr.: noyau fils   

A term used in → nuclear physics to denote a → nuclide produced by the → radioactive decay of a → parent nuclide.

From M.E. doughter, O.E. dohtor, from P.Gmc. *dochter (Ger. Tochter), from PIE *dhug(h)əter-; cf. Av. dugədar-, duγdar-, Mod.Pers. doxtar, Skt. duhitár-, Gk. thygater, Arm. dowstr, Lith. dukte.

Doxtar, from Mid.Pers. duxtar, duxt, O.Pers. *duxçi-, Av. dugədar-, duγdar-, cognate with daughter, as above.

daughter product
  دختر   
doxtar (#)

Fr.: noyau fils   

In → nuclear physics, same as → daughter.

daughter; → product.

Davisson-Germer experiment
  آزمایش ِ دیویسون-جرمر   
âzmâyeš-e Davisson-Germer

Fr.: expérience de Davisson-Germer   

The experiment carried out in 1927 that confirmed the → de Broglie hypothesis as to the → wave nature of the → electron. It showed that electrons scattering off crystals form a → diffraction pattern. The experimental setup consisted of a → nickle chloride → crystal as → target, an electron gun, and a → detector placed on a graduated circular scale. The intensity of the reflected electrons was measured as a function of angle and electron energy. The observations showed a strong intensity peak at a certain angle. The nickel crystal acted as a → diffraction grating. → Constructive interference occurred at a particular angle, where the peak intensity was observed in accord with → Bragg's law. Interestingly, the intent of the initial experiment was was not to confirm the de Broglie hypothesis. In fact, the discovery was made by accident.

Carried out by American physicists Clinton Davisson (1881-1958) and Lester Germer (1896-1971); → experiment.

dawn
  پگاه، سپیده دم، بامداد   
pegâh (#), sepidedam (#), bâmdâd (#)

Fr.: aube, point du jour, aurore   

The first daylight in the sky before sunrise, equivalent to morning astronomical → twilight; opposed to → dusk.

M.E. dawen (v.), from O.E. dagung, from dagian "to become day," from root of dægday.

Pegâh, from Mid.Pers. pa gâh, from pa "to; for; in; on; with; by; according to," O.Pers. upā, Av. upa "toward, with, on, in, in the time of" (cf. Skt. úpa "toward, together with, under, near to, on," Gk. hypo "under, below," L. sub "under," Ger. auf, E. up; PIE *upo "under, up from under, over") + gâh "time," O.Pers. gāθu-, Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot" (Skt. gátu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode," PIE *gwem- "to go, come").
Sepidedam, from sepidé "whitish; dawn," from sepid "white" (Mid.Pers. spêt, Av. spita- "white," Skt. śveta- "white," Lith. sviesti "to shine," svaityti "to brighten," P.Gmc. *khwitaz, O.E. hwit, E. white, Ger. weiss, PIE *kwintos/*kwindos "bright") + dam "moment, time; to blow, breathe; smoke" (Mod./Mid.Pers. damidan "to blow, breathe," Av. dāδmainya- "blowing up," Skt. dahm- "to blow," dhámati "blows," Gk. themeros "austere, dark-looking," Lith. dumti "to blow," PIE dhem-/dhemə- "to smoke, to blow").
Bâmdâd, from Mid.Pers. bâmdât, Av. bāmya- "the dawn," from bā- "to shine" (cf. Skt. bhā- "light, brightness," Gk. phainomai "to appear, shine, gleam," Arm. banam "to open, uncover," PIE *bhā- "to shine").

Dawn spacecraft
  فضاناو ِ داؤن   
fazânâv-e Dawn

Fr.:   

NASA's mission to explore the two largest objects in the → asteroid belt, the asteroid Vesta and the → dawarf planet Ceres, gathering data relating to their composition, internal structure, density and shape. Launched in September 2007, Dawn entered the orbit of → Vesta in July 2011 and spent 16 months there before leaving for → Ceres. It entered Ceres orbit on March 6, 2015. The Dawn spacecraft is made of aluminium and graphite composite, it has a dry mass of 747.1 kg and a mass of 1217.7 kg when fully fuelled prior to launch. The spacecraft is a box-shaped design measuring 1.64m × 1.27m × 1.77m.

dawn; → spacecraft.

day
  روز   
ruz (#)

Fr.: jour   

The length of time it takes Earth (or a planet) to rotate once on its axis relative to some external reference. The day is measured in several ways, depending on this reference, → sidereal day; → solar day; → mean solar day.

M.E., from O.E. dæg (cf. Ger. Tag, Swedish and Danish dag "day"), from PIE base *dhegh- "to burn." Not related to L. dies "day" (from *dyeu- "to shine," → diurnal), but rather to Av. dag- "to burn," dažaiti "burns," Mod.Pers. dâq "hot," Skt. dah- "to burn," dáhati, Gk. tephra "ash," L. fovere "to boil," Albanian djeg "to burn," Russ. žeč' "to burn," Lith. dagas "hot season," degti "to burn," O.Prus. dagis "summer."

Ruz "day," from Mid.Pers. rôc, O.Pers. raucah-, Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight," Skt. roka- "brightness, light," cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear," L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna), PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness". The Persian words rowšan "bright, clear," foruq "light," and afruxtan "to light, kindle" also belong to this family, as well as the E. light, Ger. Licht, and Fr. lumière.

daylight meteor
  شهاب ِ روز   
šahâb-e ruz

Fr.: météore de jour   

A → meteor detected using → radar techniques during daylight or when skies are cloudy.

day; → light; → meteor.

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