An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 69 Search : energy
mass-energy equivalence
  هموگ‌ارزی ِ جرم-کاروژ   
hamug-arzi-ye jerm-kâruž

Fr.: équivalence masse-énergie   

The principle of interconversion of mass and energy, described by the → mass-energy relation.

mass; → energy; → equivalence.

mass-energy relation
  باز‌آنش ِ جرم-کاروژ   
bâzâneš-e jerm-kâruž

Fr.: relation masse-énergie   

The famous equation proposed by Einstein as a consequence of his special theory of relativity describing the equivalence of mass and energy: E = mc2, where E is energy, m is the equivalent amount of mass, and c is the velocity of light.

mass; → energy; → relation.

mechanical energy
  کاروژ ِ مکانیکی   
kâruž-e mekâniki

Fr.: énergie mécanique   

The energy that is possessed by an object due to its motion or due to its position. It is equal to the sum of the → kinetic energy and → potential energy.

mechanical; → energy.

nuclear energy
  کاروژ ِ هسته‌ای   
kâruž-e haste-yi

Fr.: énergie nucléaire   

Energy released during a nuclear reaction as the result of the conversion of mass into energy. → mass-energy equivalence.

nuclear; → energy.

orbital energy
  کاروژِ مداری   
kâruž-e madâri

Fr.: énergie orbitale   

The → sum of the → potential energy and the → kinetic energy of an object in → orbit.

orbital; → energy.

pairing energy
  کاروژ ِ جفتش   
kâruž-e jofteš

Fr.: énergie de parité   

In nuclear physics, the extra binding energy associated with pairs of nucleons of the same kind. This quantity expresses the fact that nuclei with odd numbers of neutrons and protons have less energy and are less stable than those with even numbers of neutrons and protons.

Pairing, verbal noun of → pair; → energy.

Planck energy
  کاروژ ِ پلانک   
kâruž-e Planck

Fr.: énergie de Planck   

The unit of energy in the system of Planck units. EP = √ (ħ c5/G) ≅ 1.22 x 1019 GeV. It can also be defined as EP = ħ / tP, where tP is the Planck time. This is an extraordinarily large amount of energy on the subatomic scale and particle accelerators have yet to produce a particle with this magnitude of energy. Understanding the properties of a subatomic particle that contains the Planck Energy is helpful in developing a Unified Field Theory which encompasses the realms of Quantum Theory and Relativity, although this too has evaded complete scientific understanding.

Planck; → energy.

potential energy
  کاروژ ِ توند   
kâruž-e tavand

Fr.: énergie potentielle   

Of a system, the work done in changing the system from some standard configuration to its present state. Thus, if a body of mass m is raised vertically through a height h, the work done, mgh, is the increase in potential energy.

potential; → energy.

potential energy curve
  خم ِ کاروژ ِ توند   
xam-e kâruž-e tavand

Fr.: courbe de l'energie potentielle   

A plot that displays the → potential energy of a moving body as a function of its position. It is explained by the → conservation of energy and the conversion of potential energy into → kinetic energy and vice versa.

potential; → energy; → curve.

radiant energy
  کاروژ ِ تابشی   
kâruž-e tâbeši

Fr.: énergie radiative   

The energy that is transmitted in the form of → radiation, in particular as → electromagnetic radiation.

radiant; → energy.

rest energy
  کاروژ ِ آرَم   
kâruž-e âram

Fr.: énergie au repos   

The energy which a particle has when it is at rest. According to Einstein's → mass-energy relation, it is equal to the → rest mass times the square of the → speed of light: E = mc2.

rest; → energy.

rest-mass energy
  کاروژ ِ جرم ِ آرَم   
kâruž-e jerm-e âram

Fr.: énergie au repos   

Same as → rest energy.

rest; → mass; → energy.

rotation energy
  کاروژ ِ چرخش   
kâruž-e carxeš

Fr.: énergie de rotation   

The → kinetic energy of rotational motion of an object. It is expressed by ER = (1/2)Iω2, where I is the → moment of inertia and ω → angular velocity (2π/P).

rotation; → energy.

rotational energy
  کاروژ ِ چرخشی   
kâruš-e carxeši

Fr.: énergie rotationnelle   

The → kinetic energy due to the → rotation of and object. Rotational energy is part of the total kinetic energy of the body. It is given by: (1/2)Iω2, where I is the → moment of inertia and ω is the → angular velocity. Same as → angular kinetic energy.

rotational; → energy.

semiempirical binding energy formula
  دیسول ِ نیمه‌آروینی ِ انرژی ِ بندش   
disul-e nime-ârvini-ye kâruž-e bandeš

Fr.: formule semi-empirique de l'énérgie de liaison   

Same as → Weizsacker formula.

semiempirical; → binding; → energy; → formula.

separation energy
  کاروژ ِ جدایی   
kâruž-e jodâyi

Fr.: énergie de séparation   

The energy required to remove a particle (a proton or a neutron) from a particular atomic nucleus.

separation; → energy.

sound energy
  کاروژ ِ صدا   
kâruž-e sedâ

Fr.: énergie acoustique   

The energy which → sound waves impart to a medium. Same as acoustic energy.

sound; → energy.

spectral energy distribution (SED)
  واباژش ِ کاروژ ِ بینابی   
vâbâžeš-e kâruž-e binâbi

Fr.: distribution de l'énergie spectrale   

A plot showing the energy emitted by a source as a function of the radiation wavelength or frequency. It is used in many branches of astronomy to characterize astronomical sources, in particular mainly in → near infrared and → middle infrared to study → protostars or → young stellar objects. The SED of these objects is divided in four classes.
Class 0 in which the SED represents a very embedded protostar, where the mass of the central core is small in comparison to the mass of the → accreting envelope. The SED is characterized by the → blackbody radiation of the envelope and peaks at → submillimeter wavelengths.
Class I objects possess a SED that peaks in the → far infrared and is characterized by a weak contribution of the blackbody of the central protostar (detected in near infrared) and the emission of a thick disk and dense envelope. These objects have less mass in the envelope and more massive central cores with respect to Class 0.
Class II objects are the → classical T Tauri stars with a SED due to the emission of a thin disk and the central star. They have accumulated most of their final mass and have dispersed almost completely their circumstellar envelope.
Finally, Class III objects have pure photospheric spectra. Their SED is peaked in the optical and is well approximated by a blackbody emission with a faint → infrared excess due to the presence of a residual optically thin disk that may be the origin of → planetesimals.
This classification scheme can be made more quantitative by defining a → spectral index.

spectral; → energy; → distribution.

splitting of energy level
  فاقش ِ تراز ِ کاروژ   
fâqeš-e tarâz-e kâruž

Fr.: dédoublement d'un niveau d'énergie   

The splitting of a single atomic level into a group of closely spaced levels when the substance producing the single line is subjected to a uniform magnetic field. → Zeeman effect; → Stark effect.

spliting; → energy level.

supernova energy
  کاروژ ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
kâruž-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: énergie de supernova   

The total amount of energy liberated by a → supernova. A typical supernova radiates between 1051 and 1052  → erg, or 1044-45 J (→ joules).

supernova; → energy.

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