joft-e elektron-pozitron (#)
Fr.: paire électron-positron
1) joft; 2) hamâl (#)
M.E., from O.Fr. paire, from L. paria "equals," neuter plural of par (genitive paris) "a pair, counterpart, equal."
1) Joft "pair, couple," Lori, Laki jeft, Qâyeni jof, Tabari
jeft, Mid.Pers. yuxt "pair, couple," Av. yuxta-
"a team of horses," from yaog- "to yoke, harness, put to; to join, unite,"
infinitive yuxta, Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke,"
Mod.Pers. yuq "yoke;" cf. Skt. yuga- "yoke," Gk. zygon "yoke,"
zeugnyanai "to join, unite," L. jugare "to join," from jugum "yoke,"
P.Gmc. *yukam, E. yoke; PIE *yeug- "to join."
Fr.: annihilation de paire
Mutual destruction of a particle and its antiparticle, such as an electron-positron pair, when they collide. The total energy of the two particles is converted into energy as gamma rays. It is the inverse process to → pair production.
Fr.: instabilité de paire
An instability arising from the → pair production inside a → massive star leading to energetic → supernova explosions. The pair instability occurs when, late in the star's life, the core reaches a sufficiently high temperature after → carbon burning, a condition in which the pair production can take place. The pairs of electron and positron annihilate to form a neutrino and an anti-neutrino. Consequently, the pressure drops and the outer layers fall in onto the core. The temperature and pressure increase rapidly and eventually titanic nuclear burning causes an extraordinary explosion with energies higher than 1051 erg. See also → pair-instability supernova and → pulsational pair-instability supernova.
Fr.: production de paires
Formation of an → electron and a → positron in the interaction of high-energy γ-ray photons, having at least 1.02 Mev, with an atomic nucleus (γ → e- + e+). The → rest masses of the electron and positron being 0.51 MeV each, the excess energy will be carried away by these two particles. The pair production is the inverse process to → pair annihilation.
Fr.: instabilité de paire
abar-now-axtar-e nâpâydâri-ye joft
Fr.: supernova à instabilité de paires
A special type of → supernova that would result from the → pair instability in → supermassive stars with a mass range between 140 and 260 Msun in a low → metallicity environment. Such objects descended from the → Population III stars in the early history of the Universe. Such supernovae are the most powerful thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Pair-instability supernovae may have played an important role in the synthesis of → heavy elements. Moreover, the energetic feedback of the processed elements to their surroundings could have affected the structure and evolution of the early Universe (See, e.g., Fryer et al. 2001, ApJ 550, 372; Heger & Woosley 2002, ApJ 567, 532). See also → pulsational pair-instability supernova.
Fr.: énergie de parité
In nuclear physics, the extra binding energy associated with pairs of nucleons of the same kind. This quantity expresses the fact that nuclei with odd numbers of neutrons and protons have less energy and are less stable than those with even numbers of neutrons and protons.
pulsational pair-instability supernova
abar-now-axtar-e nâpâydâri-ye tapeši-ye joft
Fr.: supernova à instabilité pulsationnelle de paires
A → supernova resulting from the → pair instability that generates several successive explosions. According to models, a first pulse ejects many solar masses of hydrogen layers as a shell. After the first explosion, the remaining core contracts and searches for a stable burning state. When the next explosion occurs a few years later, several solar masses of material are again ejected, which collide with the earlier ejecta. This collision can radiate 1050 erg of light, about a factor of ten more than an ordinary → core-collapse supernova. After each pulse, the remaining core contracts, radiates neutrinos and light, and searches again for a stable burning state. Later ejections have lower mass, but have higher energy. They quickly catch up with the first shell, where the collision dissipates most of their kinetic energy as radiation. The first SNe from → Population III stars are likely due to pulsational pair instability (Woosley et al. 2007, Nature 450, 390). See also → pair-instability supernova.