activation energy kâruže žirâneš Fr.: énergie d'activation Chemistry: The minimum amount of energy that is required to activate → atoms or → molecules to a condition in which they can undergo a → chemical reaction. Most reactions involving neutral molecules cannot take place at all until they have acquired the energy needed to stretch, bend, or otherwise distort one or more → bonds. In most cases, the activation energy is supplied by → thermal energy. → activation; → energy. 
alternative energy kâruže degargozin, eneržiye ~ Fr.: énergie alternative Energy from a source other than the conventional fossil fuel sources. → alternative; → energy. 
angular kinetic energy kâruže jonbešiye zâviyeyi Fr.: énergie cinétique angulaier Same as → rotational energy. 
binding energy kâruže bandeš, ~ hamgiri Fr.: énergie de liaison 1) Of a gravitational system, the difference
in energies between the hypothetical state where all bodies of
the system are infinitely separated from each other and the actual bound state.

characteristic thermal energy kâruže garmâyiye sereštâri Fr.: énergie thermique caractéristique The quantity kT in the → MaxwellBoltzmann distribution law, where k is → Boltzmann's constant and T the gas temperature. See also → thermal energy. → characteristic; → thermal; → energy 
cohesive energy kâruže hamduseš Fr.: énergie de cohésion The energy associated with the chemical bonding of atoms in a solid. 
conservation of energy pâyeše kâruž Fr.: conservation d'énergie The → principle whereby the → total energy of a → closed system remains → constant. This means that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. See also the → first law of thermodynamics. → conservation; → energy. 
conservation of mass and energy pâyeše jerm o kâruž Fr.: conservation de masse et d'énergie A principle, resulting from Einstein's theory of → special relativity whereby in any → closed system the sum of mass and energy remains → constant. → conservation; → mass; → energy. 
cosmic energy equation hamugeše kâruže keyhâni Fr.: équation de l'énergie cosmique Same as the → LayzerIrvine equation. 
Coulomb energy kâruže Coulomb Fr.: énergie coulombienne The → potential energy from which derives the repulsive electrostatic force between two → charged particles. For example, the Coulomb energy between two protons is e^{2}/r ~ 0.5 MeV, which is small compared with the average → binding energy per particle (~ 8 Mev). However the Coulomb repulsion becomes important for heavy nuclei. The total Coulomb energy of a nucleus is given by: (3/5) Z(Z  1)e^{2}/R, where Z is the → atomic number, e the charge, and R the nuclear radius. Since R ∝ A^{1/3} and Z is roughly proportional to A, the Coulomb energy is roughly proportional to A^{5/3}. On the other hand, the total binding energy is proportional to A, which means that the relative importance of the repulsive electrostatic energy increases with increasing mass number as A^{2/3}. 
dark energy kâruže târik Fr.: énergie noire A hypothetical form of energy that fills all the space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the Universe. Assuming the existence of dark energy is a way to explain recent observations that the Universe appears to be expanding at an increasing rate (→ accelerating Universe). Dark energy seems to be a kind of antigravity force and is supposed to be related to → vacuum energy. Where gravity pulls things together at the more local level, dark energy tears them apart on the grander scale. The acceleration equation, one of Einstein's equations for the homogeneous Universe, indicates that if the Universe is accelerating, the pressure of the driving component should be strongly negative. The dark energy density relates to the → cosmological constant via: ρ_{&Lambda} = Λc^{2}/(8πG), where G is the → gravitational constant and c the → speed of light. The first indication of dark energy was provided by the observation of → Type Ia supernovae. Other probes of dark energy are: → baryon acoustic oscillations, → weak gravitational lensing, and clusters of galaxies. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for almost 74% of the total massenergy of the Universe. Two proposed forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant and exotic component such as → quintessence. 
dissociation energy kâruže vâhazeš Fr.: énergie de dissociation Energy required to dissociate a molecule. → dissociate. → dissociation; → energy. 
energy kâruž Fr.: énergie In physics, capacity for doing work. From M.Fr. energie, from L.L. energia, from Gk. energeia "force in action, activity, operation," from energos "active, working," from en "in, at" + ergon "work," from PIE base *werg "to work" (cf. Av. varəz "to work, do, perform, exercise;" Mod.Pers. varz, varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue"). Kâruž, literally "work strength," from kâr + už. The first component kâr "work," Mid.Pers kâr, Mod./Mid.Pers. kardan "to do, to work," Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base k^{w}er "to do, to make." The second component, už, from Mid.Pers. ôž "strength" (ôžômand "strong"), Av. aogah, aojah "strength" (aojahvant "strong") Skt. ojas "strength" (ojasvant "strong"); L. augustus "venerable," L.L. augmentare "to increase," from augere "to increase, enlarge, enrich;" Lith. augu "to grow;" Gk. auxo "increase;" Goth. aukan "to grow, increase;" O.E. eacien "to increase"); PIE *augos "force," *aug "to increase." 
energy cascade peyšâre kâruž Fr.: cascade d'énergie The → turbulent process whereby → kinetic energy is transformed into heat by the action of nonlinear coupling which transfers the energy from large eddies (→ eddy) to smaller and smaller eddies, finally arriving at → dissipative scales dominated by → viscosity (direct cascade). In the simplest case (3D homogeneous hydrodynamic turbulence), the resulting energy distribution is the → Kolmogorov spectrum. The reverse process also exists (inverse cascade) whereby energy is transferred to larger and larger eddies. 
energy density cagâliye kâruž Fr.: densité d'énergie The amount of energy in the form of radiation per unit volume, expressed in ergs cm^{3}. In particular, the energy density of blackbody radiation at temperature T is aT^{4}, where the radiation constant a = 7.56 × 10^{15} erg cm^{3} (K)^{4}. 
energy generation equation hamugeše âzâneše kâruž Fr.: équation de génération d'énergie Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the equation describing the → energy generation rate as a function of → density and → temperature. → energy; → generation; → equation. 
energy generation rate nerxe âzâneše kâruž Fr.: taux de génération d'énergie Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the energy produced per unit mass per unit time, usually denoted ε (erg g^{1}s^{1}). The general form of the energy generation equation is: ε = ε_{0}ρ^{λ}T^{ν}, where ε_{0}, ρ, and λ are constants over some efficiently restricted range of → temperature T, → density ρ, and → chemical composition. The temperature exponent ν is about 4, 15, and 40 for → protonproton chain, → CNO cycle, and → triple alpha process, respectively. → energy; → generation; → rate. 
energy level tarâze kâruž Fr.: niveau d'énergie Any of the several discrete states of energy which a particle, atom, or molecule can adopt under conditions where the possible values are restricted by quantum mechanical laws. 
energy spectrum binâbe kâruž Fr.: spectre d'énergie Of cosmic rays, the plot representing the number of particles as a function of their energy. 
energy state hâlate kâruž Fr.: état d'énergie Same as → energy level. 