Fr.: bulbe box/peanut
A → galaxy bulge that shows a boxy or peanut-like morphology. These bulges are usually featureless and show no signs of → dust obscuration, young → stellar populations, or → star-forming regions. They are also kinematically cold and usually referred to as → pseudo-bulges. A number of studies have shown that these structures are just the inner parts of → bars that grow vertically thick due to vertical → resonances. They have basically the same dynamics and stellar content as bars, just their geometry is somewhat different. Box/peanut bulges are not seen if the galaxy is not inclined enough. In a → face-on galaxy, if it has a box/peanut, it will be seen as part of the bar. The → Milky Way shows a box/peanut bulge. Another remarkable case is that of → M31, known to have a bar, with its box/peanut inner part (Combes & Sanders 1981, A&A 96, 164; Combes et al. 1990, A&A 233, 82; Kormendy & Kennicutt, 2004, ARA&A 42, 603).
Fr.: bulbe, bourrelet
1) A rounded projection, bend, or protruding part; protuberance; hump (Dictionary.com).
Bulge, from O.Fr. bouge "leather bag," from L. bulga "leather bag," of Gaulish origin.
Kuži "convexity," from kuž, → convex.
Fr.: bulbe classique
A → galaxy bulge that appears protruding from the disk plane when seen at an appropriate → inclination. Classical bulges are somewhat → spheroidal, featureless (no → spiral arms, → bars, → rings, etc.), contain mostly → old stars (not much dust or star-forming regions), and are kinematically hot, i.e. dynamically supported by the → velocity dispersion of their stars. Their → surface brightness profile follows the → de Vaucouleurs law. Currently, they are thought to form through → gravitational collapse or → mergers in violent events, inducing a fast → burst of star formation if gas is available. An example is the → Sombrero galaxy bulge (D. A. Gadotti, 2012, astro-ph/1208.2295).
Fr.: bulbe en forme de disque
A → galaxy bulge that is flatter than a → classical bulge. Such bulges might be difficult to see in very inclined galaxies. They may contain sub-structures such as nuclear → bars, → spiral arms, or → rings. They usually show signs of → dust obscuration, younger → stellar populations, or ongoing → star formation. These systems seem to form mostly through disk instabilities (→ disk instability), such as bars, in a relatively slow, continuous and smooth process. Essentially, such instabilities induce a redistribution of → angular momentum along the galaxy, and, as a result, mostly gas but also stars are driven to the disk center. Also called → pseudo-bulge (Kormendy & Kennicutt, 2004, ARA&A 42, 603; Fisher & Drory, 2010, ApJ 716, 942).
Fr.: bourrelet équatorial
The excess of the Earth's equatorial diameter over the polar diameter.
→ equatorial; bulge, from O.Fr. bouge "leather bag," from L. bulga "leather bag," of Gaulish origin.
Barâmadegi, from barâmadan "to grow out; to emerge," from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar, O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to," Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + âmadan "to come" (Mid.Pers. âmadan; O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come").
Fr.: bulbe de la Galaxie
Fr.: bulbe d'une galaxie
Fr.: bourrelet de marée
Either of the two swells of land or water (on Earth) created by the pull of another object (Moon) orbiting around it. The → gravitational attraction between the → Earth and the → Moon is strongest on the side of the Earth that happens to be facing the Moon. This attraction causes the water on this "near side" of Earth to be pulled toward the Moon. As gravitational force acts to draw the water closer to the Moon, → inertia attempts to keep the water in place. But the gravitational force exceeds it and the water is pulled toward the Moon, causing a "bulge" of water on the near side toward the Moon. On the opposite side of the Earth, or the "far side," the gravitational attraction of the Moon is less because it is farther away. Here, inertia exceeds the gravitational force, and the water tries to keep going in a straight line, moving away from the Earth, also forming a bulge. In this way the combination of gravity and inertia creates two bulges of water (Ross, D.A. 1995. Introduction to Oceanography. New York, NY: Harper Collins. pp. 236-242).