born-again planetary nebula
miq-e sayâreyi-ye bâzzâd
Fr.: nébuleuse planétaire recyclée
A → planetary nebula which is thought to have experienced a → very late thermal pulse (VLTP) when the central star (→ CSPN) was on the → white dwarf cooling track. The VLTP event occurs when the thermonuclear → hydrogen shell burning has built up a → shell of helium with the critical mass to ignite its → fusion into carbon and oxygen (→ helium shell burning). Since the → white dwarf envelope is shallow, the increase of pressure from this last helium shell flash leads to the ejection of newly processed material inside the old planetary nebula, leaving the stellar core intact. As the stellar envelope expands, its → effective temperature decreases and the star goes back to the → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) region in the → H-R diagram. The subsequent stellar evolution is fast and will return the star back to the → Post-AGB track in the H-R diagram: the envelope of the star contracts, its effective temperature and ionizing photon flux increase, and a new fast stellar wind develops (see, e.g. J. A. Toalá et al. 2015, ApJ 799, 67).
compact planetary nebula B[e] star (cPNB[e])
setâre-ye B[e]-ye miq-e sayyâre-yi-ye hampak
Fr.: étoile de nébuleuse planétaire compacte
Fr.: nébuleuse planétaire
A hot envelope of gas ejected from a central evolved star before becoming a → white dwarf. At the end of the → asymptotic giant phase the pulsating → red giant star is surrounded by an extended shell formed by the material ejected from it. As the evolved star contracts, its → effective temperature rises considerably. When it reaches about 30,000 K, the radiated photons become energetic enough to ionize the atoms in the nebula. The nebula becomes then visible in the optical. It shines essentially in a few → emission lines, produced by cascades during recombination or by collisional excitation with electrons. The central stars of planetary nebulae, → CSPNe, are typically 0.6 to 0.8 solar masses. They have → main sequence masses in the range 1 to 8 solar masses, with an average mass of 2.2 solar masses for a standard → initial mass function. Thus a total of about 1.6 solar masses is in average lost during the → AGB and planetary nebula phases. The life-time of planetary nebulae is relatively short. A typical planetary nebula lasts only a few 10,000 years.
→ planetary; → nebula. The name comes from the fact that these objects appear as planetary disks in a low-resolution telescope. The first planetary nebula, designated NGC 7009 or the → Saturn Nebula, was discovered in 1782 by the German-born English astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822), who described it as "planetary nebula."
post-planetary nebula star
setâre-ye pasâ-miq-e sayyâre-yi
Fr.: étoile post-nébuleuse planétaire
An evolved star whose → planetary nebula has dissipated.
preplanetary nebula (PPN)
Fr.: pré-nebuleuse planétaire
→ pre-; → planetary; → nebula. The more commonly used term, → protoplanetary nebula, is a misnomer and must be avoided. Indeed → protoplanetary is widely used to refer to disks around → pre-main sequence stars. Since the term → protoplanet is used to denote planets undergoing formation, the use of the term "protoplanetary nebula" to mean a completely different kind of object is an unfortunate choice (Sahai et al. 2005, ApJ 620, 948).
Fr.: pré-nebuleuse planétaire