An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 96 Search : time
21-centimeter line
  خط ِ ۲۱ س.م.   
xatt-e 21-sântimetr (#)

Fr.: raie 21-cm   

The → emission line of → neutral hydrogen in interstellar clouds. It lies in the radio spectrum at wavelength of about 21 cm, frequency 1420 MHz. Its existence was predicted by Hendrik van de Hulst in 1944 and discovered by Harold Ewen and Edward Purcell in 1951.

Twenty-one (21); → twenty + → one; → centimeter; → line.

absolute time
  زمان ِ اوست   
zamân-e avast

Fr.: temps absolu   

A universal time supposed to be the same for all observers at any place in the Universe. Absolute time is one of the foundations of → Newtonian mechanics, but it fails to account for physical phenomena in → reference frames with relative motion. Its abandoning was one of the starting points of → special relativity. See also → absolute space; → space-time.

absolute; → time.

accretion time
  زمان ِ فربال، دیرش ِ ~   
zamân-e farbâl, direš-e ~

Fr.: temps d'accrétion   

The time necessary for the → accretion of a definite amount of mass with a fixed → accretion rate.

accretion; → time.

altimeter
  فرازسنج، فرازیاب   
farâzsanj (#), farâzyâb (#)

Fr.: altimètre   

An instrument which determines the altitude of an object with respect to a fixed level, such as sea level.

L. altus "high" + → -meter.

Farâzsanj, from farâz "above, over, aloft" + -sanj, → -meter; farâzyâb, from farâz + yâb "finder," from yâbidan "to find, discover, obtain."

altimetry
  فرازسنجی، فرازیابی   
farâzsanji (#), farâzyâbi (#)

Fr.: altimétrie   

The measurement of heights in the atmosphere (altitude) by an → altimeter.

altimeter; → -metry.

apparent sidereal time
  زمان ِ اختری ِ پدیدار   
zamân-e axtari-ye padidâr

Fr.: temps sidéral apparent   

The → mean sidereal time corrected for the → nutation and shift in the obliquity of the ecliptic that occurs as a result of the Moon's gravitational effect. Apparent sidereal time differs from mean sidereal time in that the → true vernal equinox point is used.

apparent; → sidereal; → time.

apparent solar time
  زمان ِ خورشیدی ِ پدیدار   
zamân-e xoršidi-ye padidâr

Fr.: temps solaire apparent   

The time based on the motion of the → apparent Sun and kept by dividing the day into 24 equal hours.

apparent; → solar; → time.

arrival time
  زمان ِ رسش   
zamân-e raseš

Fr.: temps d'arrivée   

The precise time at which the gamma burst photons hit a detector. Measuring the time difference between the arrival time of the photons at different telescopes separated by known distances permits to determine the burst direction.

Arrival, n. from arrive + → -al. Arrive, from O.Fr. ariver "to come to land," from V.L. *arripare "to touch the shore," from L. ad ripam "to the shore," from → ad "to" + ripa "shore;" → time.

Zamân, → time; raseš n. from rasidan "to arrive," Mid.Pers. rasitan, O.Pers./Av. rasa- present stem of ar- "to move, go or come toward," cf. Skt. ar-, rcchati.

atomic time
  زمان ِ اتمی   
zamân-e atomi (#)

Fr.: temps atomique   

Time measured using atomic clocks.

atomic; → number.

Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB)
  زمان ِ همارا‌ی ِ گرانیگاهی   
zamân-e hamârâ-ye gerânigâhi

Fr.: temps-coordonnée barycentrique (TCB)   

A → coordinate time having its spatial origin at the solar system barycenter. It is intended to be used as the independent variable of time for all calculations pertaining to orbits of planets, asteroids, comets, and interplanetary spacecraft in the solar system. → Barycentric Dynamical Time (IDB).

barycenter; → coordinate; → time.

Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB)
  زمان ِ توانیک ِ گرانیگاهی   
zamân-e tavânik-e gerânigâhi

Fr.: temps dynamique barycentrique (TDB)   

A time scale previously used in calculations of the orbits of solar system objects (planets, asteroids, comets, and interplanetary spacecrafts). It was based on the Terrestrial Dynamical Time, but took the relativistic effect of time dilation into account to move the origin to the solar system barycenter. It is now superseded by → Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB).

barycenter; → dynamical; → time.

centimeter (cm)
  سانتی‌متر   
sântimetr (#)

Fr.: centimètre   

A unit of length in the → metric system, equal to one-hundredth of a meter, which is the current unit of length in the → International System of Units (SI).

centi-; → meter.

civil time
  زمان ِ شارین   
zamân-e šârin

Fr.: temps civil   

Mean solar time.

civil; → time.

coherence time
  زمان ِ همدوسی   
zamân hamdusi

Fr.: temps de cohérence   

The time over which a propagating electromagnetic wave may be considered coherent. The coherence time of an interferometer is the interval during which the fringe phase remains stable.

coherence; → time.

continuous-time quantum walk
  پویش ِ کو‌آنتومی با زمان ِ پیوسته   
puyeš-e kuântomi bâ zamân-e peyvasté

Fr.: marche quantique à temps continu   

A → quantum walk taking place entirely in the position space. Continuous-time quantum walk was introduced by E. Farhi & S. Gutmann (1998, Phys. Rev. A 58, 915).

continuous; → time; → quantum; → walk.

cooling time
  زمان ِ سردش   
zamân-e sardeš

Fr.: temps de refroidissement   

1) The time in which a → white dwarf cools to half its temperature. It depends on the composition, the mass, and the actual luminosity at some point in time. Cooling time is given by the relation: t = 8.8 × 106 (12/A) (M)5/7 (μ/2)-2/7 (L)-5/7 in years, where M and L are mass and luminosity in solar units, A the mean → atomic mass, and μ the → mean molecular weight (Iben & Tutukov, 1984, ApJ 282, 615). See also → Mestel theory; → white dwarf crystallization.
2) The time needed by a → plasma to radiate its thermal energy. The cooling time is directly proportional to the square root of the temperature and inversely proportional to the density. It turns out that for the → intercluster medium in a → cluster of galaxies this time is longer than the → age of the Universe. At the centers of some clusters, however, the cooling time is smaller than the age of the Universe due to the presence of a → cooling flow.

cooling; → time.

coordinate time
  زمان ِ همارا   
zamân-e hamârâ

Fr.: temps-coordonnée   

In relativity, the proper time in the specified reference frame. Because of time dilation, this may differ from the time experienced by any participant in the events being considered. It is the time basis (or coordinate) to be used in the theory of motions referred to this system.

coordinate; → time.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
  زمان ِ جهانی ِ هم‌آراسته   
zamân-e jahâni-ye hamrârâsté

Fr.: temps universel coordonné   

An international high-precision time standard based on the Greenwich Mean Time and adjusted to compensate for divergence from atomic time. It is based on the non-uniform rotation of the Earth (UT1) and the perfectly uniform international atomic time (TAI). UTC differs from TAI by the total number of → leap seconds, so that UT1-UTC stays smaller than 0.9 sec in absolute value.

coordinate; → universal; → time.

crossing time
  زمان ِ گذر   
zamân-e gozar (#)

Fr.: temps de traversée   

A concept used for checking the stability of a group of mass such as a cluster of galaxies or a stellar cluster. The crossing time is given by tc = R/V, where R is the average projected radial distance of group members from the center of mass and V the Gaussian dispersion in internal velocity.

cross; → time.

Zamân, → time; gozar "crossing," infinitive gozaštan, Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Sogdian wytr "to go," O.Pers./Av. vitar- "to put across," from prefix vi- "away, apart," + tar- "to cross over" (Skt. tr- "to cross over," tarati "crosses," cf. Av. taro, Skt. tirah "through, beyond," L. trans "beyond," Ger. durch, E. through; PIE base *tr- "through").

curvature of space-time
  خمیدگی ِ فضا-زمان   
xamidegi-ye fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: courbure de l'espace-temps   

According to → general relativity, → space-time is curved by the presence of → matter. The curvature is described in terms of → Riemann's geometry. In → cosmological models three types of curvature are considered: positive (spherical, → closed Universe), zero (Euclidean, → flat Universe), and negative (hyperbolic, → open Universe). See also → curvature constant.

curvature; → space-time.

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