covalence ham-arzâyi Fr.: covalence Chemistry: The number of covalent bonds which an atom can from. The sharing of electrons to form chemical bonds. → equivalence. From → co- + valence, from L. valentia "strength, worth," valere "to be worth; be strong." Ham-arzâyi, from ham-→ co- + arzâyi, from arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth," Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *alg^{w}h- "to earn; price, value." |
Einstein equivalence principle parvaz-e hamug-arzi-ye Einstein Fr.: principe d'équivalence d'Einstein The → equivalence principle as stated by Einstein, on which is
based the theory of → general relativity. It comprises
the three following items: → Einstein; → equivalence; → principle. |
equivalence hamug-arzi (#) Fr.: équivalence The state or fact of being equivalent; equality in value, force, significance, etc. → covalence. From M.F. from M.L. æquivalentia, from L. æquivalent-, → equivalent. Hamug-arzi, noun of hamug-arz, → equivalent. |
equivalence principle parvaz-e hamug-arzi Fr.: principe d'équivalence A fundamental concept of physics, put forward by A. Einstein, that states that gravitational and inertial forces are of a similar nature and indistinguishable. In other words, acceleration due to gravity is equivalent to acceleration due to other forces, and gravitational mass is the same as inertial mass. Same as the → principle of equivalence. → equivalence; → principle. |
mass-energy equivalence hamug-arzi-ye jerm-kâruž Fr.: équivalence masse-énergie The principle of interconversion of mass and energy, described by the → mass-energy relation. → mass; → energy; → equivalence. |
principle of equivalence parvaz-e hamug-arzi Fr.: principe d'équivalence In → general relativity the principle which states that in the immediate proximity of an → accelerating system the acceleration is physically equivalent to → gravitational force. This principle also implies the equivalence of → gravitational mass and → inertial mass. Same as the → equivalence principle. See also → Einstein's elevator. → principle; → equivalence. |
valence arzâyi Fr.: valence A measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. It represents the relative ability of an atom of an element to combine with other atoms. For example, the valence of O in water, H_{2}O, is 2. Also called valency. M.E., from O.Fr., from L valentia "strength, worth," from valentem (nominative valens), pr.p. of valere "to be strong." Arzâyi, noun from arzâ, agent noun/adj. from arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth" (Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *alg^{w}h- "to earn; price, value"). |
valence band bând-e arzâyi Fr.: bande de valence The range of energy states in the spectrum of a solid crystal which includes the energies of all the electrons binding the crystal together. |
valence electron elektron-e arzâyi Fr.: électron de valence An electron of an atom lying farthest from the nucleus. Valence electrons are shared when atoms combine to form molecules. |
weak equivalence principle parvaz-e hamug-arzi-ye nezâr Fr.: principe d'équivalance faible All structureless bodies fall along the same → path in a → gravitational field, independent of their composition. Also known as → universality of free fall. See also: → equivalence principle, → Einstein equivalence principle. → weak; → equivalence; → principle. |