An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 435 Search : ad
  چهارگوشه، چارگوش   
cahârgušé, cârguš

Fr.: quadrilatère   

A two-dimensional figure that consists of four points connected by straight lines. Same as → tetragon; see also → quadrilateral.

L.L. quadrangulum, noun use of neuter of L. quadrangulus, quadriangulus "four-cornered," from quadr- variant of quadri- before a vowel "four," akin to quattuor, → four, cognate with Pers. cahâr, as below; → angle.

Cahârgušé, cârguš "four-cornered," from cahâr, câr "four," cognate with L. quattuor, → four, + gušé, guš "corner, angle;" Mid.Pers. gôšak "corner."

Quadrans Muralis

Fr.: Quadrant   

An obsolete → constellation created by the French astronomer Jérôme Lalande in 1795. He named it such for the main astronomical instrument, that is → mural quadrant, he used. Quadrans Muralis was located between the constellations → Boötes and → Draco. The name disappeared from astronomical catalogs, but the → meteor showerQuadrantids has kept that name.

mural quadrant.


Fr.: quadrant   

1) A quarter of a circle; an arc of 90°.
2) Any of the four parts into which a plane is divided by a pair of rectangular axes.
3) An instrument, usually containing a graduated arc of 90°, formerly used in astronomy and navigation to measure the angles and altitudes of stars. → mural quadrant.

M.E., from L. quadrantem (nominative quadrans) "fourth part."

Cârakân, from cârak + -ân. Cârak "quarter," literally "fourth, a fourth part of one," from câr, variant of cahâr, → four, cognate with L. quattuor, + -ak, contraction of yak "one," from Mid.Pers. êwak (Proto-Iranian *aiua-ka-); O.Pers. aiva- "one, alone;" Av. aēuua- "one, alone" (cf. Skt. éka- "one, alone, single;" Gk. oios "alone, lonely;" L. unus "one;" E. one); -ân nuance suffix.


Fr.: Quadrantides   

An annual → meteor shower reaching a peak about 3 January and having its → radiant in the constellation → Boötes.

From L. Quadrant-, from Quadrans Muralis , → mural quadrant.


Fr.: quadratique   

Of or relating to or resembling a → square.
Of, relating to, or containing terms with powers no higher than the power of two.

Quadratic, adj. of quadrate, from L. quadratus p.p. of quadrare "to make square."

Câruši pertaining to câruš "square," from Av. caθruša- "four sides (of a four-sided figure)," from caθru- "four," Mod.Pers. cahâr, câr "four," cognate with L. quattuor, → four.

quadratic equation
  هموگش ِ چاروشی   
hamugeš-e câruši

Fr.: équation quadratique   

An equation with the general form of ax2 + bx +c = 0, in which the highest power of the unknown is the second power (square).

quadratic; → equation.

quadratic formula
  دیسول ِ چاروشی   
disul-e câruši

Fr.: formule quadratique   

A formula relating the unknown part of a → quadratic equation (the roots of the equation, x) to the known parts (a, b, and c): x = (-b± (b2 - 4ac)½) / 2a.

quadratic; → formula.

  ۱) چاروشش، چاروشی؛ ۲) نوَدان، چاروشش   
1) cârušeš, câruši; 2) navadân, cârušeš

Fr.: quadrature   

1) General: The process of making something square; the act of squaring.
2) Math.: The act or process of constructing a → square with an area equal to that of a specified surface, especially a surface bounded by a curve.
3) Astro.: The position of a planet or the Moon when it makes a 90° angle with the Sun as seen from Earth.

From L. quadratura, from quadrat(us) p.p. of quadrare "to make square."

1) Cârušeš verbal noun of cârušidan "to square," from câruš "square," from Av. caθruša-, → quadratic.
Câruši quality noun of câruš "square," as preceding.
2) Navadân, from navad "ninety," referring to the longitude difference of 90° (Mid.Pers. nawad; Av. nauuaiti- "ninety," from nauua- "nine" (Mod.Pers. noh); cf. Skt. navati- "ninety") + -ân suffix of place and time.

quadrature of the circle
  چاروشش ِ پرهون، ~ ِ دایره   
cârušeš-e parhun, ~ dâyeré

Fr.: quadrature du cercle   

Constructing a square whose area equals that of a given circle. This was one of the three geometric problems of antiquity. It was finally proved to be an impossible problem when π was proven to be transcendental by Lindemann in 1882. Same as → squaring the circle.

quadrature; → circle.

  چهاربر، چاربر   
cahârbar (#), cârbar(#)

Fr.: quadrilatère   

A plane figure bounded by four straight lines.

From L. quadrilater(us) "four-sided," from L. quattuor, → four, + → lateral.

  چهارتا، چهارتایی   
cahârtâ (#), cahârtâyi (#)

Fr.: quadruple   

Fourfold; consisting of four parts.

M.E. from L. quadruplus, from quadru- + duple, from duplus, from du(o) "two" + -plus "fold."

Cahârtâ, from cahâr, → four, cognate with L. quattuor, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part" (Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part").

quadruple system
  راژمان ِ چهارتایی   
râžmân-e cahârtâyi

Fr.: système quadruple   

A stellar system consisting of four stars orbiting around a common → center of mass.

quadruple; → system.

  چهارقطبه، چهارقطبه‌ای   
cahârqotbé (#), cahârqotbe-yi (#)

Fr.: quadrupolaire   

Of or pertaining to a → quadrupole, especially a → quadrupole moment.

quadrupole + -ar, → -al.

cahârqotbé (#)

Fr.: quadrupôle   

A set of either two → electric dipoles or two → magnetic dipoles in close proximity to each other arranged with alternating polarities and acting as a single unit. Quadrupole interactions are much smaller than dipole interactions, but can allow transitions forbidden in dipole moment transitions.

From L. quadru-, variant of quadri- "four" + → pole, on the model of → dipole.

Cahâr, → four, + qotb, → pole + noun/nuance suffix .

quadrupole anisotropy
  نا-ایزوگردی ِ چهارقطبه   
nâ-izogardi-ye cahârqotbé

Fr.: anisotropie quadrupolaire   

The → anisotropy which is at the origin of the → cosmic microwave background polarization. The quadrupole anisotropy could arise from three types of perturbations: → scalar perturbation, → vector perturbation, and → tensor perturbation

quadrupole; → anisotropy.

quadrupole lens
  عدسی ِ چهارقطبه   
adasi-ye cahârqotbé

Fr.: lentille quadrupôle   

A device, consisting of four → electrodes or → magnetic poles arranged in alternating → polarity, that focuses a beam of → charged particles.

quadrupole; → lens.

quadrupole moment
  گشتاور ِ چهارقطبه   
gaštâvar-e cahârqotbé

Fr.: moment quadrupolaire   

A quantity characterizing an electric charge distribution, determined by the product of the charge density, the second power of the distance from the origin, and a spherical harmonic over the charge distribution.

quadrupole; → moment.

quark-hadron phase transition
  گذرش ِ فاز ِ کو‌آرک-هادرون   
gozareš-e fâz-e kuârk-hâdron

Fr.: transition de phase quark-hadron   

A phase transition, predicted by cosmological models, to have occurred at approximately 10-5 seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadron.

quark; → hadron; → phase; → transition.

quasi-stellar radio source
  ر‌آدیو-خن ِ چونان‌ستاره، ~ ~ ِ ستاره‌وش   
râdio-xan-e cunân setâré, ~ ~ setâré-vaš

Fr.: radiosource quasi-stellaire   

A quasar with detectable radio emission.

quasi-; → stellar; → radio; → source.

rad (rd)
râd (#)

Fr.: rad   

A unit of energy absorbed from ionizing radiation, equal to 100 → ergs per gram, or 0.01 → joules per kilogram, of irradiated material. Rad has been replaced by → gray (Gy).

Shortened form roentgen absorbed dose; → roentgen.

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