An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 435 Search : ad
radioactive waste
  آخال ِ پرتو-ژیرا   
âxâl-e partow-žirâ

Fr.: déchets radioactifs   

The radioactive by-products from the operation of a nuclear reactor or from the reprocessing of depleted nuclear fuel. Also known as nuclear waste.

radioactive; → waste.

  پرتو-ژیرایی، پرتو-ژیرندگی   
partow-žirâyi, partow-žirandegi

Fr.: radioactivité   

The spontaneous disintegration of certain atomic nuclei, which is accompanied by the emission of either α- or β- particles and/or a γ rays.

radio; → activity.


Fr.: radiocarbone   

A → radioactive → isotope of → carbon, especially → carbon-14.

radio; → carbon

radiocarbon dating
  سن‌یابی ِ پرتو-کربونی   
senn yâbi-ye partow-karboni

Fr.: datation au radiocarbone   

A radioactive dating technique, applied to organic materials, which measures the content of the radioactive isotope of carbon 14C. The radioactive carbon isotopes created by the impact of cosmic rays with the nitrogen atoms of the atmosphere find their way, via carbon dioxide and photosynthesis, into living material. When an organic material dies it ceases to acquire further 14C atoms, and its 14C fraction declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay of 14C. Comparing the remaining 14C fraction of a sample to that expected from atmospheric 14C allows the age of the sample to be estimated.

radiocarbon; → dating.

partow bonpâr

Fr.: radioélément   

An element, such as uranium, whose isotopes are all radioactive.

radio; → element.

partow-negâri (#)

Fr.: radiographie   

The process of producing an image on a sensitive surface by radiation such as X-rays or gamma rays passing through an object.

radio + → -graphy.


Fr.: radioisotope   

A synonym for radionuclide.

radio; → isotope.

partowšenâsi (#)

Fr.: radiologie   

The study and use of radiation and radioactive substances for the treatment of diseases.

radio; + → -logy.


Fr.: radiolyse   

The dissociation of molecules by radiation, for example in a reactor core, when the water used for cooling breaks down into hydrogen and oxygen.

From → radio + -lysis a combining form denoting "breaking down, loosening, decomposition," → analysis.

tâbeš-sanj (#)

Fr.: radiomètre   

An instrument that measures the intensity of radiant energy.

radio; → -meter.

radiometric dating
  سن‌یابی ِ تابش‌سنجیک، ~ تابش‌سنجی   
senn yâbi-ye tâbeš-sanjik, ~ tâbeš-sanji

Fr.: datation radiométrique   

A dating method that uses measurements of certain radioactive isotopes to calculate the ages in years (absolute age) of rocks and minerals.

radiometer; → dating.

tâbeš- sanji (#)

Fr.: radiométrie   

The detection and measurement of radiant energy, either as separate wavelengths or integrated over a broad wavelength band, and the interaction of radiation with matter in such ways as absorption, reflection, and emission.

radio + → -metry.

Tâbeš-sanji, from tâbeš, →radiation, + -sanj-metry.


Fr.: radionucléide   

A radioactive → nuclide.

radio + → nuclide.

râdio gomâné

Fr.: sonde radio   

A meteorological instrument that is carried aloft by a balloon to measure and send back information on atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity via radio to a ground receiving system.

radio + sonde, from Fr. sonde "sounding line."

radio; gomâné "a probe, a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi- "apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + mā- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum).

râdiom (#)

Fr.: radium   

A radioactive metallic chemical element; symbol Ra. Atomic number 88; atomic weight 226.0254; melting point 700°C; boiling point 1,140°C. Discovered in 1898 by Marie Sklodowska Curie in an ore of pitchblende. In 1911 Curie and André Debierne successfully isolated radium by electrolysis.

N.L., from L. rad(ius)" ray, beam" → radius + -ium a noun suffix.

šo'â' (#)

Fr.: rayon   

Of a circle, any straight line segment extending from the center to a point on the circumference.
Of a sphere, any straight line segment extending from the center to a point on the surface.
Of a regular polygon, the radius of the circle circumscribed about the polygon.

From L. radius "staff, spoke of a wheel, beam of light," of unknown origin.

Šo'â', loan from Ar.

radius of gyration
  شعاع ِ لرش   
šo'â'-e lereš

Fr.: gyrorayon   

Same as → Larmor radius.

radius; → gyration.

radius vector
  بردار ِ شعاعی   
bordâr-e šo'â'i (#)

Fr.: rayon vecteur   

Math.: In a system of polar or spherical coordinates, a line joining a point to the origin.
Astro.: A line drawn from a central body to a satellite object in any position in its orbit.

radius; → vector.

pâyé (#)

Fr.: base   

The base of a number system; thus 2 is the radix of the binary system, 10 the radix of the decimal system, 12 the radix of the duodecimal system.

From L. radix "root;" akin to Gk. rhiza "root;" cf. O.N. rot "root," O.E. wyrt "plant, herb;" E. radish.

Pâyé "basis, foundation; step," from "foot, step" (from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-).

râdon (#)

Fr.: radon   

A gaseous radioactive chemical element; symbol Rn. Atomic number 86; mass number of most stable isotope 222; melting point about -71°C; boiling point -61.8°C. Radon was discovered in 1900 by the German chemist Friedrich Ernst Dorn and it was first isolated in 1910 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English chemist Robert Whytlaw-Gray. The longest half-life associated with this unstable element is 3.8 day.

The name indicates its origin from → radium. It had first been called radium emanation or just emanation (with chemical symbol Em) because it was a decay product of radium. Ramsay subsequently suggested the name "niton" (with chemical symbol Nt), which means "shining" in Latin. It was finally changed to radon in 1923.

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