An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 16 Search : general

Fr.: général   

(Adj.) 1) Not limited to one class, field, product, service, etc. 2) Relating to the whole or to the all or most. 3) Dealing with overall characteristics, universal aspects, or important elements.
See also:
general precession, → general relativity, → generalization, → generalize, → generalized, → generalized coordinates, → generalized forces, → generalized momenta, → generalized velocities, → New General Catalogue (NGC).

From L. generalis "relating to all, of a whole class," from genus "race, stock, kind," akin to Pers. zâdan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" Mod.Pers. zâdan, present stem zā- "to bring forth, give birth" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; cf. Skt. jan- "to produce, create; to be born," janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignomai "to happen, become, be born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."

Harvin, from Mid.Pers. harvin "all," from har(v) "all, each, every" (Mod.Pers. har "every, all, each, any"); O.Pers. haruva- "whole, all together;" Av. hauruua- "whole, at all, undamaged;" cf. Skt. sárva- "whole, all, every, undivided;" Gk. holos "whole, complete;" L. salvus "whole, safe, healthy," sollus "whole, entire, unbroken;" PIE base *sol- "whole."

general precession
  پیشایان ِ هروین   
pišâyân-e harvin

Fr.: précession générale   

The secular motions of the → celestial equator and → ecliptic. In other words, the sum of → lunisolar precession, → planetary precession, and → geodesic precession.

general; → precession

general precession in longitude
  پیشایان ِ هروینِ درژنا   
pišâyân-e harvin-e derežnâ

Fr.: précession générale en longitude   

The secular displacement of the → equinox on the → ecliptic of date.

general; → precession; → longitude.

general precession in right ascension
  پیشایان ِ هروین ِ راست‌افراز   
pišâyân-e harvin-e râst afrâz

Fr.: précession générale en ascension droite   

The secular motion of the → equinox along the → celestial equator.

general; → precession; → right ascension.

general relativistic
  بازانیگی‌مند ِ هروین   
bâzânigimand-e harvin

Fr.: de relativité générale   

Of, relating to, or subject to the theory of → general relativity.

general; → relativistic.

general relativity
  بازانیگی ِ هروین   
bâzânigi-ye harvin

Fr.: relativité générale   

The theory of → gravitation developed by Albert Einstein (1916) that describes the gravitation as the → space-time curvature caused by the presence of matter or energy. Mass creates a → gravitational field which distorts the space and changes the flow of time. In other words, mass causes a deviation of the → metric of space-time continuum from that of the "flat" space-time structure described by the → Euclidean geometry and treated in → special relativity. General relativity developed from the → principle of equivalence between gravitational and inertial forces. According to general relativity, photons follow a curved path in a gravitational field. This prediction was confirmed by the measurements of star positions near the solar limb during the total eclipse of 1919. The same effect is seen in the delay of radio signals coming from distant space probes when grazing the Sun's surface. Moreover, the space curvature caused by the Sun makes the → perihelion of Mercury's orbit advance by 43'' per century more than that predicted by Newton's theory of gravitation. The → perihelion advance can reach several degrees per year for → binary pulsar orbits. Another effect predicted by general relativity is the → gravitational reddening. This effect is verified in the → redshift of spectral lines in the solar spectrum and, even more obviously, in → white dwarfs. Other predictions of the theory include → gravitational lensing, → gravitational waves, and the invariance of Newton's → gravitational constant.

general; → relativity.

general secretary
  هروین دبیر   
harvin dabir

Fr.: secrétaire général   


general; → secretary.

  هروین‌کرد، هروینش   
harvinkard, harvineš

Fr.: généralisation   

The act or process of generalizing; → generalize.
A result of this process; a general statement, proposition, or principle.

Verbal noun of → generalize.

  هروین کردن، هروینیدن   
harvin kardan, harvinidan

Fr.: généraliser   

To make general, to include under a general term; to reduce to a general form.
To infer or form a general principle, opinion, conclusion, etc. from only a few facts, examples, or the like.

general; → -ize.


Fr.: généralisé   

Made general. → generalized coordinates; → generalized velocities.

P.p. of → generalize

generalized coordinates
  هماراهای ِ هروینیده   
hamârâhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: coordonnées généralisées   

In a material system, the independent parameters which completely specify the configuration of the system, i.e. the position of its particles with respect to the frame of reference. Usually each coordinate is designated by the letter q with a numerical subscript. A set of generalized coordinates would be written as q1, q2, ..., qn. Thus a particle moving in a plane may be described by two coordinates q1, q2, which may in special cases be the → Cartesian coordinates x, y, or the → polar coordinates r, θ, or any other suitable pair of coordinates. A particle moving in a space is located by three coordinates, which may be Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, or → spherical coordinates r, θ, φ, or in general q1, q2, q3. The generalized coordinates are normally a "minimal set" of coordinates. For example, in Cartesian coordinates the simple pendulum requires two coordinates (x and y), but in polar coordinates only one coordinate (θ) is required. So θ is the appropriate generalized coordinate for the pendulum problem.

generalized; → coordinate.

generalized forces
  نیروهای ِ هروینیده   
niruhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: forces généralisées   

In → Lagrangian dynamics, forces related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized forces are expressed by Fi = ∂L/∂qi, where L is the → Lagrangian function.

generalized; → force.

generalized momenta
  جنباک‌های ِ هروینیده   
jonbâkhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: quantité de mouvement généralisée   

In → Lagrangian dynamics, momenta related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized momenta are expressed by pi = ∂L/∂q.i, where L is the → Lagrangian function.

generalized; → momentum.

generalized velocities
  تنداهای ِ هروینیده   
tondâhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: vitesses généralisées   

The time → derivatives of the → generalized coordinates of a system.

generalized; → velocity.

New General Catalogue (NGC)
  کاتالوگ ِ هروین ِ نو   
kâtâlog-e harvin-e now

Fr.: New General Catalogue   

A catalogue of 7,840 non-stellar objects compiled by J. L. E. Dreyer and published in 1888. A further 1,529 objects were listed in a supplement that appeared seven years later, called the → Index Catalogue (IC). The Second Index Catalogue of 1908 extended the supplementary list to 5,386 objects.

new; → general; → catalog


Fr.: secrétaire général   

The head or chief administrative officer of a secretariat.

secretary; → general.