An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 22 Search : instability
baroclinic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارشیبی   
nâpâydâri-ye fešâršibi

Fr.: instabilité barocline   

1) A type of instability occurring within a rapidly → rotating star where non-axisymmetric motions can separate surfaces of constant pressure from → equipotential surfaces.
2) A hydrodynamic instability associated with a baroclinic layer of the atmosphere. It arises from temperature variation along the pressure surfaces. Baroclinic instability is associated with the vertical → shear of the mean flow, which is related to the horizontal temperature gradient by the thermal wind equation. Instabilities in a baroclinic region grow by converting potential energy associated with the mean horizontal temperature gradient into kinetic energy through ascending warm air and descending cold air (Rasmussen & Turner (eds.), Polar Lows, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003).

baroclinic; → instability.

barotropic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارگرد   
nâpâydâri-ye fešârgard

Fr.: instabilité barotrope   

A hydrodynamical instability that arises when the horizontal → shear gradient becomes very large. Barotropic instabilities grow by extracting kinetic energy from the mean flow field.

barotropic; → instability.

disk instability
  ناپایداری ِ گرده، ~ دیسک   
nâpâydâri-ye gerdé, ~ disk

Fr.: instabilité de disque   

1) General: The process by which an → accretion disk cools, causing it to fragment into self-gravitating → clumps.
2) A model of → planet formation in which a region of a → circumstellar disk becomes dense and cool enough to be unstable to → gravitational collapse, resulting in the formation of a gaseous → protoplanet. Disk instability has been put forward as a mechanism for forming massive → giant planets on short time-scales (1 Ky-1 My).
3) In models of galactic structure, a process that is thought to cause the formation of → pseudo-bulges.
4) → disk instability model (DIM).

disk; → instability.

disk instability model (DIM)
  مدل ِ ناپایداری ِ گرده، ~ ~ دیسک   
model-e nâpâydâri-ye gerdé, ~ ~ disk

Fr.: modèle d'instabilité de disque   

A model describing → dwarf novae and → Soft X-ray Transient (SXT)s. Accordingly, these objects are triggered by an → accretion disk instability due to an abrupt change in opacities (→ opacity) at → temperatures at which hydrogen is partially ionized. All versions of the DIM have this ingredient. They differ in assumptions about → viscosity, and about what happens at the inner and outer disk radii. Basically, during → quiescence, material accumulates in the accretion disk until a critical point is reached. The disk then becomes unstable and is dumped onto the → compact object, releasing a burst of → X-rays. However, the greater duration of SXT bursts (months) and the time interval between bursts (decades) cannot be accounted for by the standard disk instability model used for dwarf novae, and additional factors such as X-ray illumination and irradiation of the accretion disk are required for the model to match the observed properties of SXTs (J-P Lasota and J-M Hameury, 1995).

disk; → instability; → model.

fingering instability
  ناپایداری ِ انگشتوار   
nâpâydâri-ye angoštvâr

Fr.: instabilité à traines   

A type of instability that often occurs in fluids which are thermally stably stratified, but have an inhomogeneous composition. A well-known example, found in upper layers of the Earth's oceans, is → salt fingers. Similar fingering instabilities can occur in any other thermally stably stratified solution, provided the concentration of the slower-diffusing solute increases with height. The saturated state of this instability, → fingering convection, takes the form of tightly-packed, vertically-elongated plumes of sinking dense fluid and rising light fluid, and significantly enhances the vertical transport of both heat and chemical composition. The fingering instability occurs in stars within radiation zones that have an unstable mean → molecular weight  → gradient (μ gradient). This situation is often found as a result of material accretion onto a star by anything from a single or multiple planets, to material from a dust-enriched or debris accretion disk, or material from a more evolved companion. It also naturally arises in the vicinity of the → hydrogen shell burning in → red giant branch (RGB) stars, and in thin element-rich layers near the surface of intermediate-mass stars. The fingering instability initially takes the form of thin tubes, hence the name "finger," within which the fluid moves vertically. The tubes rapidly break down, however, as a result of parasitic shear instabilities that develop inbetween them, and the fingering instability eventually saturates into a state of homogeneous fingering convection where the typical aspect ratio of the eddies is closer to one (P. Garaud et al., 2015, arXiv:1505.07759).

finger; → -ing; → instability.

gravitational instability
  ناپایداری ِ گرانشی   
nâpâydâri-ye gerâneši (#)

Fr.: instabilité gravitationnelle   

The process by which fluctuations in an infinite medium of size greater than a certain length scale (the Jeans length) grow by self-gravitation.

gravitational; → instability.

instability
  ناپایداری   
nâpâydâri (#)

Fr.: instabilité   

The condition of a system when it is disturbed by internal or external forces. The system continues to depart from the original condition, in contrast to a stable system, which will return to its previous condition when disturbed.

From → in- "not" + → stability

instability strip
  نوار ِ ناپایداری   
navâr-e nâpâydâri

Fr.: bande de l'instabilité   

A narrow, almost vertical, band on the right hand side of the → main sequence in the → H-R diagram occupied by many different types of → pulsating stars (→ RR Lyrae, → Cepheids, → W Virginis, → ZZ Ceti). Stars traverse this region at least once after they leave the main sequence. The narrow temperature range of the instability strip corresponds to the stellar → effective temperature that can sustain → partial ionization zones, capable of maintaining stellar oscillations. The blue (hot) edge of the instability strip pertains to stars with surface temperatures hotter than ~ 7500 K. Because these stars have partial ionization zones too close to their surface, the pulsation mechanism is not active. The red (cooler) edge of the instability strip is determined by stars with a temperature lower than ~ 5500 K. In these stars convection prevents the build-up of heat pressure necessary to drive pulsations.

instability; → strip.

Jeans instability
  ناپایداری ِ جینز   
nâpâydâri-ye Jeans

Fr.: instabilité de Jeans   

An instability that occurs in a → self-gravitating  → interstellar cloud which is in → hydrostatic equilibrium. Density fluctuations caused by a perturbation may condense the material leading to the domination of gravitational force and the cloud collapse. The advent of instability involves a threshold called the → Jeans length or the → Jeans mass.

Jeans; → instability.

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
  ناپایداری ِ کلوین-هلمهولتس   
nâpâydâri-ye Kelvin-Helmholtz (#)

Fr.: instabilité de Kelvin-Helmholtz   

An → instability raised when there is sufficient velocity difference across the interface between two uniformly moving → incompressible fluid layers, or when velocity → shear is present within a continuous fluid.

Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction; → instability.

linear instability
  ناپایداری ِ خطی   
nâpâydâri-ye xatti (#)

Fr.: instabilité linéaire   

An instability that can be described (to first-order accuracy) by linear (or tangent linear) equations.

linear; → instability.

magnetorotational instability (MRI)
  ناپایداری ِ مغنات-و-چرخشی   
nâpâydâri-ye meqnâtocarxeši

Fr.: instabilité magnétorotationnelle   

An instability that arises from the action of a weak → poloidal magnetic field in a → differentially rotating system, such as a → Keplerian disk. The MRI provides a mechanism to account for the additional outward → angular momentum transport. To put it simply, the → frozen magnetic field line acts as a spring connecting two radially neighboring fluid parcels. In a Keplerian disk the inner fluid parcel orbits more rapidly than the outer, causing the spring to stretch. The magnetic tension forces the inner parcel to slow down reducing its angular momentum by moving it to a lower orbit. The outer fluid parcel is forced by the spring to speed up, increase its angular momentum, and therefore move to a higher orbit. The spring tension increases as the two fluid parcels grow further apart, and eventually the process runs away. The MRI was first noted in a non-astrophysical context by E. Velikhov in 1959 when considering the stability of → Couette flow of an ideal hydromagnetic fluid. His result was later generalized by S. Chandrasekhar in 1960. The MRI was rediscovered by Balbus and Hawley 1991 (ApJ 376, 214) who demonstrated that this instability does indeed manifest itself in → accretion disks, and could account for the turbulent mixing needed to explain the observed mass → accretion rates.

magneto-; → rotational; → instability.

nonlinear instability
  ناپایداری ِ ناخطی   
nâpâydâri-ye nâxatti

Fr.: instabilité non-linéaire   

The instability of a physical or mathematical system that arises from the nonlinear nature of relevant variables and their interactions within the system.

nonlinear; → instability.

pair instability
  ناپایداری ِ جفت   
nâpâydâri-ye joft

Fr.: instabilité de paire   

An instability arising from the → pair production inside a → massive star leading to energetic → supernova explosions. The pair instability occurs when, late in the star's life, the core reaches a sufficiently high temperature after → carbon burning, a condition in which the pair production can take place. The pairs of electron and positron annihilate to form a neutrino and an anti-neutrino. Consequently, the pressure drops and the outer layers fall in onto the core. The temperature and pressure increase rapidly and eventually titanic nuclear burning causes an extraordinary explosion with energies higher than 1051 erg. See also → pair-instability supernova and → pulsational pair-instability supernova.

pair; → instability.

pair-instability
  ناپایداری ِ جفت   
nâpâydâri-ye joft

Fr.: instabilité de paire   

pair instability

pair; → instability.

pair-instability supernova
  اَبَر-نو‌اختر ِ ناپایداری ِ جفت   
abar-now-axtar-e nâpâydâri-ye joft

Fr.: supernova à instabilité de paires   

A special type of → supernova that would result from the → pair instability in → supermassive stars with a mass range between 140 and 260 Msun in a low → metallicity environment. Such objects descended from the → Population III stars in the early history of the Universe. Such supernovae are the most powerful thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Pair-instability supernovae may have played an important role in the synthesis of → heavy elements. Moreover, the energetic feedback of the processed elements to their surroundings could have affected the structure and evolution of the early Universe (See, e.g., Fryer et al. 2001, ApJ 550, 372; Heger & Woosley 2002, ApJ 567, 532). See also → pulsational pair-instability supernova.

pair; → instability; → supernova.

Parker instability
  ناپایداری ِ پارکر   
nâpâydâri-ye Parker

Fr.: instabilité de Parker   

A type of instability found in some astrophysical phenomena involving → magnetic fields; it arises if a gas layer is supported by the horizontal magnetic fields against → gravity. Also called → magnetic buoyancy. Briefly, this instability works as follows. Consider a uniform disk of gas which is coupled to a magnetici field that is parallel to the disk. Suppose that the disk is gravitationally stratified in the vertical direction, and is in dynamical equilibrium under the balance of gravity and pressure (thermal and magnetic). Now consider a small perturbation which causes the field lines to rise in certain parts of the disk and sink in others. Because of gravity, the gas loaded onto the field lines tends to slide off the peaks and and sink into the valleys. The increase of mass loads in the valleys makes them sink further, while the magnetic pressure causes the peaks to rise as their mass load decreases. Consequently, the initial perturbation is amplified, causing the production of density fluctuations in an initially uniform disk. The characteristic scale for the Parker instability is ~4πH, where H is the scale height of the diffuse component of the disk. For the Milky Way, where H ~ 150 pc, this scale is about 1-2 kpc. Numerical simulations show that the density contrast generated by the Parker instability is generally of order unity before the instability saturates. This implies that the Parker instability on its own may not be able to drive collapse on large scales. Nevertheless, it may trigger gravitational instability in a marginally unstable disk and/or induce strong motions in the medium, thereby acting as a source of turbulence on large scales (see, e.g., Houjun Mo, Frank van den Bosch, Simon White, 2010, Galaxy Formation and Evolution, The University Press, Cambridge, UK).

First studied by E. N. Parker, 1966, ApJ 145, 811; → instability.

pulsational instability
  ناپایداری ِ تپشی   
nâpâydâri-ye tapeši

Fr.: instabilité pulsationnelle   

A term used to describe irregularly spaced, fine-scale structure in optically thick rings. The process relies on a combination of viscosity and self-gravity of ring material to produce this fine structure. Also known as overstability (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

pulsational; → instability.

pulsational pair-instability supernova
  اَبَر-نو‌اختر ِ ناپایداری ِ تپشی ِ جفت   
abar-now-axtar-e nâpâydâri-ye tapeši-ye joft

Fr.: supernova à instabilité pulsationnelle de paires   

A → supernova resulting from the → pair instability that generates several successive explosions. According to models, a first pulse ejects many solar masses of hydrogen layers as a shell. After the first explosion, the remaining core contracts and searches for a stable burning state. When the next explosion occurs a few years later, several solar masses of material are again ejected, which collide with the earlier ejecta. This collision can radiate 1050 erg of light, about a factor of ten more than an ordinary → core-collapse supernova. After each pulse, the remaining core contracts, radiates neutrinos and light, and searches again for a stable burning state. Later ejections have lower mass, but have higher energy. They quickly catch up with the first shell, where the collision dissipates most of their kinetic energy as radiation. The first SNe from → Population III stars are likely due to pulsational pair instability (Woosley et al. 2007, Nature 450, 390). See also → pair-instability supernova.

pulsational; → pair; → instability.

Rayleigh-Taylor instability
  ناپایداری ِ ریلی-تیلر   
nâpâydâri-ye Rayleigh-Taylor

Fr.: instabilité Rayleigh-Taylor   

A type of hydrodynamical instability between two fluids of different densities, which occurs when the heavy fluid lies above the lighter fluid in a gravitational field. More generally a material interface is said to be Rayleigh-Taylor unstable whenever the fluid acceleration has an opposite direction to the density gradient.

rayleigh; → Taylor number; → instability.

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