# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1358
 closed curve   خم ِ بسته   xam-e basté (#)Fr.: courbe fermée   A curve whose ends are joined.→ closed; → curve. closed space   فضایِ بسته   fazâ-ye basté (#)Fr.: espace fermé   A bounded space the surface of which has the property that if one travels in any direction upon it without changing direction, one will end up back to the departure point. An example is a sphere. Triangles which lie on the surface of a closed space will have a sum of angles which is greater than 180°. An closed space has a positive → curvature. See also → closed Universe, → open space.→ closed; → space. closed system   راژمان ِ بسته   râžmân-e bastéFr.: système fermé   Thermodynamics: A system which can exchange energy with the surroundings but not matter. → open system; → isolated system.→ closed; → system. closed Universe   گیتی ِ بسته   giti-ye basté (#)Fr.: Univers fermé   A → cosmological model, first formulated by Friedmann and Lemaître, in which the Universe has a → finite size and lifetime and → space has a → positive → curvature, e.g. a Universe with a density greater than the → critical density. See also → closed space.→ closed; → Universe. closed wff    wff بسته   wff bastéFr.: FBF fermée   In → predicate logic, a → wff with no → free occurrences of any → variable. Also called a → sentence.→ closed; → wff. closure   بندش   bandeš (#)Fr.: clôture   Math.: The property of a set in which the application of a given mathematical operation to any member of the set always has another member of the set as its result. The intersection of all closed sets that contain a given set.M.E., from M.Fr., from O.Fr. closure "that which encloses," from L. clausura "lock, fortress, a closing," from p.p. stem of claudere "to close."Bandeš, verbal noun of bastan "to shut, bind; to clot; to form seed buds," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind. closure axiom   بنداشت ِ بندش   bondâšt-e bandešFr.: axiome de clôture   A basic rule in → group theory stating that if a and b are a group element then a * b is also a group element.→ closure; → axiom. closure phase   فاز ِ بندش   fâz-e bandešFr.: clôture de phase   In astronomical interferometry, a method using triplets of telescopes in an array to calculate the phase information and get over the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The method, used in high-resolution astronomical observations, both at radio and at optical wavelengths, allows imaging of complex objects in the presence of severe aberrations.→ closure; → phase. clothoid   کلوتویءید   klotoidFr.: clothoïde   A plane curve of spiral form, → Cornu's spiral.From Gk. kloth, from klothein "to spin" + epenthetic vowel -o- + eides "form," → -oid; because the curve is reminiscent of the thread that winds around a weaving loom. → Klotho. cloud   ابر   abr (#)Fr.: nuage   1) A visible mass of water droplets and/or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earth's surface. 2) → interstellar cloud.Cloud, from O.E. clud "mass of rock," from P.Gmc. *kludas.Abr, from Mid.Pers. awr, abr (Laki owr, Baluchi haur, Kordi Soriani hewr), Av. awra- "rain cloud, rain," cf. Skt. abhra-"thunder cloud," Gk. afros "scum, foam," L. imber "rain;" also Sk. ambha- "water," Gk. ombros "rain," PIE *mbhros "rain cloud, rain," from *mbh-. cloud chamber   اتاقک ِ ابر   otâqak-e abrFr.: chambre à nuage   An early type of → bubble chamber used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. It was invented in 1900 by Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869-1959), a Scottish physicist, who along with Arthur Compton (1892-1962 ) received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1927.→ cloud; → chamber. cloud cover   پوشش ِ ابری   pušeš-e abri (#)Fr.: couverture nuageuse   The fraction of the sky covered by clouds. It is expressed in tenths, so that 0.0 indicates a clear sky and 1.0 (or 10/10) indicates a completely covered sky.→ cloud; → cover. cloud fragmentation   لتپارش ِ ابر   latpâreš-e abrFr.: fragmentation de nuage   Process by which a → collapsing → giant molecular cloud breaks into dense → clumps, eventually bringing about → pre-stellar cores.→ cloud; → fragmentation. cloudbow   ابرکمان   abrkamânFr.:   A large, faintly colored arc formed usually by sunlight falling on a cloud. Also called white rainbow, fogbow, and mistbow. Cloudbow appears white because the water droplets in the cloud or fog are very small compared with those of ordinary rainbows.→ cloud; → bow. cloudburst   رگبار   ragbâr (#)Fr.: averse   Any sudden and heavy fall of → rain, always of the → shower type.→ cloud; → burst.Ragbâr, from rag + bâr. The second component bâr, variant bârân "rain," from bâridan "to rain." The origin of the first component is not clear. Rag in Persian means "blood vein, vessel," but this sense seems irrelevant here. In Gilaki the bare râk (without bâr) means cloudburst. Râk/rag may be related (via an extinct Iranian parent) to the Skt. stem ri- "to flow, to drop, to become liquid." cloudiness   ابر‌آلودگی   abrâludegi (#)Fr.: état nuageux, nébulosité   Same as → cloud cover.From cloudy, from cloudy, from → cloud + → -ness. cloudshine   ابر‌تاب   abr-tâbFr.: éclat de nuage   Light from nearby stars scattered by → dust grains in low-density outer regions of → molecular clouds. It is seen not only in the → near infrared bands JHK, but also continuously from the visible to 5 μm. Cloudshine could be considered as an intermediate between → scattering in the visible and the → coreshine effect (Foster & Goodman, 2006, ApJ 636, L105). See also→ cloud; → shine. clover   شبدر   šabdar (#)Fr.: trèfle   Any of various plants of the genus Trifolium with three round, green leaves that are joined together. Clovers occasionally have leaves with four leaflets, instead of the usual three.M.E. clovere; O.E. clafre; cf. M.L.G. klever, M.Du. claver, Du. klaver, O.S. kle, O.H.G. kleo, Ger. Klee "clover," of uncertain origin.Šabdar, of unknown origin. cloverleaf quasar (H1413+117)   کو‌آسار ِ برگ ِ شبدر   kuâsâr-e barg-e šabdarFr.: quasar du trèfle à quatre feuilles   A bright → quasar whose image is split into four spots due to → gravitational lensing (Magain et al. 1988, Nature 334, 325). The four images of comparable brightness all lie within 0.7 arc seconds of the image center. The quasar has a → redshift of 2.56, corresponding to a distance of about 11 billion → light-years. Observations indicate that the lensing galaxy is located approximately at the geometrical center of the four images. A firm spectroscopic redshift of the lens has yet to be obtained; however, a → cluster of galaxies at a redshift of z = 1.7 has been suggested to account for the lensing of this system. H1413+117 was the first quasar to be detected in the → submillimeter wave → continuum and in → carbon monoxide emission.So named because of the optical image; → clover; → leaf; → quasar. clump   گوده   gudeFr.: grumeau   1) A compact mass, in particular that contained in a less dense environment. 2) → molecular clump. 3) Inhomogeneities on small scales present in → stellar winds. See also → clumped wind.Clump, from Du. klomp "lump, mass," or Low Ger. klump.Gudé "ball, bowl, tumour" in Gilaki, cf. Skt. guda- "ball, mouthful, lump, tumour," Gk. gloutos "rump," L. glomus "ball," globus "globe," Ger. Kugel, E. clot, PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."